University of Strathclyde US, UK and EU Flags Takes you to the main page for this section

New Russia Barometer 11 Questionnaire

A. Employment

We would like you to answer some questions about the work you do. If you work at several jobs, tell us about the job which you consider to be your main one.

A. 1. What is your current economic status?
a. Employed Go to 2A
b. Self-employed, own business, own farm Go to 2A
c. Employed, on maternity leave Go to 2A
d. Pensioner but still employed. Go to 2A
e. Pensioner Go to 2B
f. Unemployed, get state unemployment benefit Go to B1
g. Unemployed, don't get state unemployment benefit "
h. Housewife Go to B 1
k. Student "
l. Other "

2A. In the past 12 months for any period:
a. Have you received (Are you receiving) wages late Yes/ No
b. Have you been (Will you be) not paid at all Yes/ No

2B. IF pensioner, in the past 12 months for any period:
a. Have you received (Are you receiving) pension s late Yes/ No
b. Have you been (Will you be) not paid pension at all Yes/ No

Ask Qs. 3-4 only of those employed (reply a,b,c, d to Q. A1

A3. Which of these terms best describes your employer
State-owned enterprise
State budgetary organization,
Mixed ownership (state and private) enterprise
Privatized former state enterprise
Newly created enterprise/private company
Foreign enterprise/ joint venture
Self-employed, own business
State or collective farm or forestry enterprise
Other (Specify)

A4. Do you belong to a trade union?

A5. Do you earn enough from your main job to buy all you really need?
Definitely enough
Just enough
Not enough
Definitely not enough

B. The Economy

B 1. Do you think it is better when there are plenty of goods in the shops even if they are expensive
Definitely agree
Somewhat agree
It is better when the prices are kept low by the state even if there are few goods in the shops
Definitely agree
Somewhat agree

B. 2. Here is a scale ranking how well an economy works. The top, plus 100, is the best and the bottom, minus 100, is the worst. Where on this scale would you put:
a. The economic system before perestroyka? -----
b. Our current economic system -----
c. Our economic system in five years. -----

Now here are some questions about the material situation of your family

3. In the past twelve months did your family often, sometimes, rarely,. or never have to do without:
a) Food Often / Sometimes / Rarely / Never
b) Heating
c) Electricity
d) Clothes, shoes that are really necessary

4. Do you have any of the following in your household:
a. Colour television Yes/ No
b. Video cassette recorder
c. Car bought second hand
d. A car bought new

5. Including all sources of family income, what was your total family income in the past month, including money you have earned but not yet received, bonuses you expect to receive, etc. (Note: Convert any foreign currency earnings into roubles) ----------- Roubles

6. All in all, how do you rate the economic situation of your family today?
Very satisfactory / Fairly satisfactory / Not very satisfactory / Very unsatisfactory

7. How would you compare your family's economic situation with what it was before perestroyka, that is before 1985?
Much better now / Somewhat better / Same / Somewhat worse now / Much worse

8. What do you think the economic situation of your family will be in five years compared to now?
Much better in future / Somewhat better / Same / Somewhat worse / Much worse

9. a. Which activity on this card is the most important for the standard of living of you and your family?
b. And which is second in importance?
1st-a 2nd-b
(SHOW CARD) (Only one answer for a, for b)
-Growing own food
-Repairing house or apartment
-What we get as favours
-What we get with the help of friends and relatives
-Income in foreign currency
-Earnings in second job, income from own business
-Money that we get on the side, private services, commissions, tips
-Earnings from regular job
-Pension or unemployment money
-Benefits given at work, like meals, holidays, housing, medical services, school places, free public transport etc.

10 In the past year has your household:
Made savings
Just got by
Spent savings
Borrowed money
Spent savings and borrowed money

11. How long will it be before you have reached a standard of living with which you are content?
1-2 years
3-5 years
6-10 years
Already content
Don't know

12. How long do you think it will take the government to solve the economic problems in the country?
1-2 years
3-5 years
6-10 years
Already content
Don't know

C. Systems of Government

C.1. Here is a scale for evaluating the political system. The top, plus 100, is the best, and the bottom, minus 100, is the worst. Where on this scale would you put:
a. the political system we had before perestroyka ------
b. our current political system --------
c. the political system we will have in five years. ------

C.2 The word democracy has many different meanings. How important do you think each of the following conditions is for a country do be democratic? For each item, please indicate whether you think for democracy it is:
Essential / Important but not essential / Not so important / Not at all important
a. There is a choice of candidates and parties at each election.
b. Equality of all citizens before the law
c. People should be free to join any organization that they want
d. Elected officials try to do what people want.
e. Government officials obey the law
f. Ordinary people can influence what government does.
g. The country is economically prosperous
h. Government guarantees an income for all its citizens

C 3. Here is a scale ranging from a low of 1 to a high 10: 1 means complete dictatorship and 10 means complete democracy.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
a. Where would you like our country to be?
b. (New) Where would you place our country before perestroyka?
c. Where would you place our country at the present time?
d. (New) Where would you expect our country to be in five years time?

C 4. Which of the following statements do you agree with most? (choose one)
Democracy is preferable to any other kind of government. 1
In certain situations, an authoritarian government can be preferable to a democratic one. 2
It doesn't matter to people like me whether we have a democratic or a non-democratic government. 3

C.5. There has always been talk about government establishing the dictatorship of law.* Do you think this is a desirable goal?
Definitely desirable
To some extent desirable
Somewhat undesirable
Definitely undesirable

C 6A There are different opinions about what should be the nature of the state. To what extent do you think:
Completely agree / Generally agree / Somewhat disagree /Generally disagree
i It would be better to restore the Communist system
ii It would be better if parliament and elections were suspended.
iii The army should govern the country.
iv A tough dictatorship is the only way out of the current situation
v Experts should take major government decisions rather than
elected leaders

C. 6B How likely do you think each of these is to happen in the next few years?
Very likely/ Maybe/ Not very likely/ Not at all likely
i The Communist system would be restored
ii Parliament and elections were suspended.
iii The army took over the government of the country
iv A tough dictatorship was established

C. 7 Which is more important to you: democracy or order?
(VCIOM question reported in Levada article: Monitoring no. 61, 2002: 5)
Definitely democracy more important
Democracy somewhat more important
Order is somewhat more important
Order is definitely more important


D. How Russia is Governed Today

D 1. Compared to the old regime before perestroyka would you say today things are:
Much better than before/ somewhat better/ Much the same/ A little worse/ Much worse
a. Everyone has the right to say what they think
b. You can join any organization you like
c. Everybody has freedom of choice in religious matters
d. Everyone can decide individually whether or not to participate in politics.

D 2. To what extent do you think public officials enforce the law equally for everyone or selectively, depending on who are dealing with?
Definitely equal
Tend to be equal
Tend to be selective
Definitely selective

D 3 How likely do you think it is that the courts will punish public officials who take bribes
Very likely/ Probably/ Probably not/ Definitely not

D.4 Do you think the President of Russia should have the right to suspend the Parliament and introduce presidential rule by decree if he considers that necessary.
Strongly agree / Somewhat agree / Somewhat disagree / Strongly disagree

D.5 Do you think the Duma should have the right to stop the President taking decisions that it considers wrong.
Strongly agree / Somewhat agree / Somewhat disagree / Strongly disagree

D 6.a. How much influence do you think the government in Moscow has on what happens in this locality?
A lot/ some/ a little/ none

6.b And how much influence do you think people like yourself have on what government does?
A lot/ some/ a little/ none

D 7 To what extent do you trust each of these political institutions to look after your interests? Please indicate on a scale with 1 for complete absence of trust at all and 7 great trust.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
No trust at all =1 Great trust=7
a. Political parties (list as in Uppsala paper)
b. Constitutional court
c. Police
d. Army
e. Duma members generally
f. Federal Security Service FSB
g. The President of Russia
h. Governor of this region

D.8 And to what extent do you trust the following groups in society?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
No trust at all=1 Great trust=7
a. Churches
b. Trade unions
c. Most people in this country
d. Most people you know


E. Civic Participation

E.1 Do you belong to any organization such as a sports group, musical or art group; political party; Association to improve your housing block, neighbourhood; Charitable organization
Belongs to one or more
Doesn't belong

E.2 How interested would you say you are in politics
Very interested / Somewhat interested / A little interested / Not at all interested

E.3 Do you happen to know the name of:
a. The deputy who represents this district in the Duma?
b. The governor of this region?
c. And the Prime Minister of Russia today?

E.4 What broad political outlook are you most inclined to favour?
Support a market economy
Social democratic
Great power patriot
Environmentalist, Green
Other specify

E.5 Here are some reasons that people give about the differences between political parties in this country. Which of the following best explains these differences: (SHOW CARD)
(Respondent can make two choices.)
lst choice 2nd choice
a. Some parties represent big cities, while others defend rural and peripheral regions.
b. Some parties believe the Communist regime did much more harm than good, while others want to preserve most of its achievements.
c. Some parties want government to manage the economy, while others prefer the market.
d. Some parties ask voters to support their political programme and principles, while others appeal chiefly in terms of big personalities.
e. The big difference is between those who are in power and those who are out of power.

E. 6 Do you identify with any political party?
Yes/ No

E. 7 What do you think people like yourself should do when there is a national election?
Make every effort to cast your vote
If it is not convenient, there is no need to vote
No point in voting; it doesn't do any good

E. 8 A If a Duma election were held next Sunday and the following parties appeared on the party list ballot, for which would you vote?
Women of Russia
Against all
Don't know
Wouldn't vote

8.B If a election for the presidency were held next Sunday, for whom would you vote?
Gennady Zyuganov
Vladimir Zhirinovsky
Vladimir Putin www
Grigory Yavlinsky
Against all
Don't know
Wouldn't vote

E.9 What do you think of elections in which we have a big choice of candidates and parties?
Definitely favour / Somewhat favour / Not so good / Definitely bad

E.10 Do you think having elections regularly makes government do what ordinary people want?
To a large extent/ Somewhat / Not much / Not at all

E. 11 Since the election of Vladimir Putin as President, how much has the situation changed compared to his predecessor in terms of:

Definite improvement/ some improvement/ no change/ a little worse/ a lot worse
a. Equality of everyone before the law, including public officials and rich people
b. Introducing order in society [poryadok]
c. social protection of the poor
d. Reducing crime
e. Keeping prices from rising

E. 12 Which broad political outlook, if any, do you most associate with Vladimir Putin? (choose only one)
Support a market economy
Great power patriot
Environmentalist, Green
Other specify

E 13 What assessment would you give to Vladimir Putin as President, if '1' is the very bad and '10' is the best mark?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Very bad The best


H International Relations

F 1. What do you think about this country having closer ties with each of the former republics of the Soviet Union?
Favour/ Indifferent/ Oppose/
Azerbaijan (Answer for each)

F 2. Do you have any close relatives or friends living in:
(Circle all that apply)
Other CIS countries
Estonia, Latvia or Lithuania
Other ex-Communist bloc countries such as Poland or Czechoslovakia
Western Europe
Other continents

F 3. If Russians in the near abroad were under threat from the government there, the Russian government could respond in different ways. Which of the following actions would you support?
Totally approve /Somewhat approve /Somewhat disapprove /Totally disapprove
a) Negotiate
b) Use economic pressure
c) Resettle people of Russian nationality in the Russian Federation
d Military action
e) Nothing can be done

F 4. Do you know any of the following languages well enough to read a newspaper article? (circle all that apply)
Other Slavic languages
Another CIS language
Another European language

F 5. Do you ever think of yourself as a European?
Often / Sometimes / Rarely / Never

F6 Giving marks out of ten, where 0 is very badly and 10 is very well, how well do you think the following institutions do their jobs? Or haven't you heard enough about the institution to have an opinion? 0 Very Badly .... 10 Very Well 99 Don't Know/ Haven't heard enough
a. European Union
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 99
b. United Nations
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 99
c. World Bank
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 99
d. International Monetary Fund
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 99
d. World Trade Organization
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 99

F 7. Do you think any of the following could be a substantial threat to security of Russia?
Big threat / Some / A little / No threat at all
a. China
b. Countries in Central Asia, Middle East
c. Germany
d. USA
e. People of other nationalities living in Russia.

F 8. Some say that Russia's future lies with the countries of Western Europe. Others think it lies with such Slavic countries as Ukraine and Belarus. Which is closer to your view? (one answer only)
Definitely Slavic such as Ukraine, Belarus 1
More likely Ukraine, Belarus 2
Probably Western Europe 3
Definitely Western Europe 4

F 8. How proud of you are being a Russian citizen?
Very proud / Fairly proud / Not very proud / Not at all proud


G Past, Present, Future

G 1. Would you say that now is your time.
(VCIOM question reported in Levada article: Monitoring no. 62, 2002: #6)
Yes, it is my time
No my time is past.
No, my time has yet to come.
Don't know

G 2. How have the big changes in society since Soviet times affected you?
I have benefited from the changes 1
I have adapted to the changes 2
I live as before, don't notice changes 3
I am unable to adjust 4
Still trying to adapt 5

G 3. Some people say it will take years for the next Russian government to deal with problems inherited from the past. Do you:
Definitely agree / Somewhat agree / Somewhat disagree / Strongly disagree

G 4. Do you think that Russia is heading in the right direction or the wrong direction or is it going nowhere. Modified VCIOM question
Right direction
Wrong direction
Just standing still

G 5. Do you think that the changes in Russia, which have imposed many hardships, will bring positive results to the majority of people of this country sooner OR later?
Yes, in the next five years
Yes, in the next ten years
Eventually yes
Don't know

G 6A. Do you think Russian life today is that of a normal society?
Definitely Go to S 1
Fairly normal:
Only a little "
Not at all normal "

G 6B. IF not already normal: How long do you think it will be before Russia becomes a normal society?
1-2 years / 3-5 years / 6-10 years / Never / Difficult to know if it ever will be normal


Social Structure

S 1. Gender: Male / Female

S 2. How old are you?________ years

S 3. What is your level of education?
1 Elementary education or less
2 Incomplete secondary education
3 Complete secondary education without certificate
4 Completed vocational education with incomplete secondary
5 Completed secondary with certificate
6 Completed vocational education and secondary certificate
7 Completed specialised vocational education
8 Completed 3-4 years of higher education without a degree
9 Completed higher education with a degree
10 Completed higher education with more than one degree

S 4A Over the past 12 months, would you say your physical health has been:
Very good/ good/ average / poor/ very poor

S 4B Over the past 12 months, would you say your emotional health has been:
Very good/ good/ average / poor/ very poor

S 5A What is your current family status?
1 Single
2 Married
3 Live together, but not married
4 Live separately, but not divorced
5 Divorced
6 Widowed

S 5B How many people are living together in this household, including yourself, all children and any temporarily absent? ----------

S 5C How many in this household are employed? ----------

S 6. In our society there are people of high social position and people of low social position. On this scale, where 1 is the highest position and 10 the lowest, what position do you have now? (Show card)
1 (high) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (low)

S 7 Do you have access to the internet/WWW at home or work or elsewhere?
Never heard of it, don't know

S 8a With which of the following do you most closely identify yourself?

8b And which do you identify with secondly?
(Two answers: code which is chosen lst, which 2nd)
a. Local city or city in which I live
b. Region
c. Russia
d. Europe
e. Other
f. Don't know

S 9a. What religion, if any, do you identify with?
Other Christian
Believer without any particular church

CSPP School of Government & Public Policy U. of Strathclyde Glasgow G1 1XQ Scotland