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Half a billion people have dual citizenship. This gives people a vote in national elections holding their national government accountable and a vote in European elections in which they can elect a few representatives to the 751-seat multi-national European Parliament. Citizens are left to decide how to reconcile their monopoly on the accountability of their national government with the power-sharing that their elected representatives engage in at the European level.

National referendums rejecting EU policies are challenging the legitimacy of the EU’s authority. The challenge is being examined in a new project, REDO: Referendums and European Democracy, in collaboration with the Robert Schuman Centre of the European University Institute Florence and C2D, University of Zurich.

Tensions created from Athens to London are examined in a new edition of Representing Europeans and in blogs and comments on the UK Referendum on staying in or leaving the EU. Small states are more than four-fifths of member states in the EU. Their distinctive role is the subject of six reports in a major project financed by the Portuguese Fundação Francisco Manuel dos Santos.

REDO is launching a collection of Abstracts of papers presented at major conferences in Europe and America about national referendums of EU relevance. The Brexit section contains abstracts of papers on the unique UK experience of living with a referendum’s consequences.



"Responsible Party Government in a World of Interdependence". West European Politics, (2014) 37,2, 253-269. Richard Rose.

"Static and Dynamic Views of European Integration". Journal of Common Market Studies, (2015) doi: 10.1111/jcms.12295. Richard Rose and Gabriela Borz.

"Aggregation before Representation in European Parliament Party Groups". West European Politics (2013), 36,3, 474-497. Richard Rose and Gabriela Borz.

"What Determines Demand for European Union Referendums?". Journal of European Integration (2013), 35,5, 619-633. Richard Rose and Gabriela Borz.

"Evaluating Competing Criteria for Allocating Parliamentary Seats". Journal of Mathematical Social Sciences (2012), 63, 85-89. Richard Rose, Patrick Bernhagen and Gabriela Borz.

"Institutional Stimuli and Individual Response as Explanations of Turnout: the 2009 European Parliament Election". Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties (2013), 23, 4, 405-422. Richard Rose and Gabriela Borz.

"To Ask or to Simulate?", Studies in Public Policy 512. "Simulieren oder Fragen?" Methoden-Daten-Analaysen, 6,2, 2012, 133-156. Patrick Bernhagen and Richard Rose.


SPP 524. The Absolute and Instrumental Legitimacy of Democracy. Richard Rose and Bernhard Weßels.

SPP 522. The Rolling Path to Brexit. Richard Rose.

SPP 520. National Party Programmes and European Integration. Kenneth Stevenson and Richard Rose.

SPP 516. The Conflicting Dynamics of European Integration: Institutions vs. Public Opinion.  Richard Rose and Gabriela Borz.

SPP 514. The European Political Capital of Portuguese. Richard Rose and Alexander Trechsel.

SPP 513. Myths and Countermyths in the European Union. Krisztina Arató.

SPP 512. To Ask or to Simulate? Estimating the Political Effects of Low Turnout at the 2009 European Parliament Election. Patrick Bernhagen and Richard Rose.
SPP 507. Transparency as Organized Hypocrisy? The Case of the EU Legislative Process. Stephanie Novak.
SPP 506. Vertical and Horizontal EU Policymaking. Richard Rose and Alexander Trechsel.
SPP 504. Dissent in EU Council Voting. Domestic Adjustment Costs and Interdependence as Explanations. Javier Arregui and Robert Thomson.
SPP 500. How Size Matters: Portugal as an EU Member. Richard Rose and Alexander Trechsel.
SPP 496. Facing Up to Britain's Europe Problems. Richard Rose.
SPP 495. Sub-National Parliaments in a Multi-Level Parliamentary System: The German Länder in the Post-Lisbon Era. Gabriele Abels.
SPP 487. The Nature and Evolution of Public Support for European Integration over the Long Run. Christopher J. Anderson and Jason D Hecht.
SPP 485. Designing Low-Cost Campaigns? The Effects of Party Finance on National Parties in European Elections. Mathieu Petithomme.
SPP 484. Citizen Participation and the Lisbon Treaty: A Legal Perspective. Francesco Maiani.
SPP 483. The Organization of the EU Parliamentary Parties: The Impact of Eastern Enlargement. Edoardo Bressanelli.
SPP 475. Constitutional Identity Politics? The German Constitutional Court, The Lisbon Treaty and Europe's Constitutional Doctrine. Wilhelm Lehmann.
SPP 473. On Political Representation: Myths and Challenges. Johannes Pollak.
SPP 472. Inequality in the Representation of Citizens in the European Parliament. Patrick Bernhagen and Richard Rose.
SPP 470. Mapping Parties across Europe with EU Profiler Data. Gabriela Borz and Richard Rose.
SPP 468. Explanation is Not Justification: Representation in the European Union System. Richard Rose.
SPP 467. Patterns of Party Regulation in Post-War European Constitutions. Ingrid Van Biezen and Gabriela Borz.




CSPP School of Government & Public Policy U. of Strathclyde Glasgow G1 1XQ Scotland