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New Russia Barometer III Questionnaire


1. Were you unemployed for a week or more in the past year?
Yes/No/Not in labour force

1a. IF YES: How many weeks were you unemployed in the past year?
1 week/2 weeks/3 weeks/4 weeks/5 weeks/6 weeks/7 to 12 weeks /13 to 26 weeks/26 to 52 weeks

1b. Did you receive a cash unemployment benefit from the state?

2. Have you been placed on short time or had your monthly salary delayed or paid only in part in the past year?
Yes, delays in paying salary
Yes, paid a part of my salary
Not paid at all
No problem with pay
Not in labour force

2a. IF YES: How many weeks were you unpaid or on short-time?
1 week/2 weeks/3 weeks/4 weeks/5 weeks/6 weeks/7 to 12 weeks /13 to 26 weeks/26 to 52 weeks

3. Is your employer:
State enterprise
State financed incl. army, police
Former state-owned, now private
New private enterprise
Foreign-owned company
State or collective farm
Privatized collective farm
R & D, higher ed.
Schools, technical ed.
Health sector
Other employer

4. Let us suppose that you unexpectedly received a large sum of money, for example a legacy or winning a lottery. What would you do:
Stay in your present job
Try to find a better job
Start your own business or buy land for a farm
Stop working
Difficult to answer

5. Is your basic salary enough to cover your everyday expenses?
Definitely enough/Just enough/Not enough/Definitely not enough/Difficult to answer

6. Do you or a family member have a second job or additional income?
Yes/No/Difficult to answer

7. Do you or a family member spend more than one hour a day in queues shopping?
Yes/No/Not applicable, difficult to answer

8. IF YES: How much time on average do you spend each day queuing?
15 minutes/30 minutes/45 minutes/1 hour/1 hour 15 minutes/1 hour 30 minutes/2 hours

9. Compared with last year, how much time do you and your family spend queuing?
More/Same/Less/Difficult to answer

10. What is the most important for you and your family's standard of living?
Growing own food
Repairing house or flat
What we get through connections
What we get with help of friends, relatives
Buying goods with foreign currency
Earnings from second job
Incidental earnings
Earnings from regular job
Pension, unemployment benefit
Benefits at place of work, such as holidays, meals
Difficult to answer

11. What is second most important?
Growing own food
Repairing house or flat
What we get through connections
What we get with help of friends, relatives
Buying goods with foreign currency
Earnings from second job
Incidental earnings
Earnings from regular job
Pension, unemployment benefit
Benefits at place of work, such as holidays, meals
Difficult to answer

12. Did your family during the last year
Save money/Just got by/Loaned money/Spent savings and loaned money/Hard to say

12a. Did your family during the last year
Save money/Got by/Not got by/Don't know

Q. Sometimes one has to do without things that are really necessary. How often during the last 12 months did you have to do without:
13a. Food
13b. Heating, electricity
13c. Fuel for car
13d. Clothes that were needed
13e. Medical services
13f. Household repairs
13g. Other household necessities
13h. Going to theatres, cinemas
13i. Newspapers


14. How soon will you reach a standard of living with which you are content?
1-2 years/3-5 years/6-10 years/More than 10 years/Never/Impossible to predict/I am already satisfied/Difficult to answer

Q. Here is a scale for evaluating how the economy works. The highest mark is plus 100; the lowest, minus 100.
15. Where on this scale would you place the socialist economy in 1989?

16. Where would you place our current economic system?

17. Our economic system in five years' time?

18. How does the economic situation of your family today compare with five years ago?
Much better in the past/Somewhat better in the past/Same/Somewhat worse in the past/Much worse then/Difficult to answer

19. How do you rate the economic situation of your family today?
Good/Not bad/Not very good/Very bad/Difficult to answer

20. What do you think your family's economic situation will be in 5 years?
Much better/Somewhat better/Same/Somewhat worse/Much worse/Difficult to answer

Q. Who is to blame for our economic problems--and how much?
Definitely/Somewhat/Not much/Not at all/Difficult to answer
21a. The Communists
21b. Those who introduced reforms
21c. The workers
21d. Businessmen
21e. Russian President personally
21f. Russian government
21g. Egor Gaidar
21h. Present Russian Parliament
21i. Former party nomenklatura
21j. Local government authorities
21k. Mafia
21l. Jews
21m. Foreign governments
21n. Capitalists
21o. We Russians ourselves
21p. Disintegration of the USSR

22. The way things are going, do you feel that our country's economic reform programme is going too fast, too slow or at the right speed?
Too fast/Too slow/About the right speed/Difficult to answer


Q. What do you think are the most important tasks facing the government this year?
23a. Rising prices
23b. Pensions
23c. Reducing the budget deficit
23d. Full employment
23e. Struggle against corruption
23f. Defend the environment
23g. Crime
23h. Improve health care

24. What are your main concerns right now? (Choose maximum of three)
Price rises
Low wages
Government's ineffectiveness
Increasing confrontation between political groups
Possibility of civil war
Increasing crime
Ecological pollution
How other Republics treat Russians
Russia's place in the world today
Disintegration of Russian Federation
Poor medical services

25. When do you think you will be content with this country's system of government?
Already content/1-2 years/3-5 years/6-10 years/More than 10 years/Never/Don't know

Q. Here are a series of statements that people sometimes make. In each pair, which is closer to your view?
26a. It will take years for our new political system to solve problems inherited from Communists
If our political system does not yield good results soon we must choose a new one

26b. It is most important to maintain peace and order in our society
It is most important to have personal liberty, the right to do all one wants without state interference

26c. Rising prices are the biggest threat for our family
Unemployment is the biggest threat for our family

26d. Our country should develop like West European countries
Our country should develop according to our own traditions

26e. Our government should put first making Russia a world superpower
Our government should put domestic problems first

26f. If the position of Russians in other parts of the former Soviet Union is threatened, which do you think would be better:
Government should use all means, economic and military, to protect Russians in the near abroad
Government should concentrate on repatriating Russians who want to come back

Q. Here is a scale for evaluating how the political system works. The highest mark is plus 100; the lowest, minus 100.
27. Where on this scale would you place the former Communist regime?

28. Where would you place our current system with free elections and a multi-party system?

29. Where would you place our political system in five years time?

Q. How about differences between the system of government before perestroika and our current system. For each of the following would you say it is now better than during the communist period, much the same, or worse?
Better/Much the same/Worse/Difficult to answer
30a. Everybody has a right to say what they think
30b. One can join any organisation one likes
30c. One can travel or live anywhere one wants
30d. People like me can have an influence on government
30e. One need not be afraid of illegal arrest
30f. Everyone can decide individually whether or not to take an interest in politics
30g. Government treats everybody equally and fairly
30h. Everybody has freedom of choice in religious matters

Q. Our current political system is not the only possible one. Some people say that another would be better for us. What do you think? Here are some statements; please tell me to what extent you agree with each of them.
Completely agree/Generally agree/Generally disagree/Completely disagree/Difficult to answer
31a. It would be better to restore the former communist system
31b. The Army should rule
31c. We do not need parliament or elections, but instead a strong leader who can make decisions and put them into effect fast
31d. Experts, not parliament and government, should make the most important economic decisions
31e. The monarchy should be restored

Q. There are various public institutions in Russia such as legislative and executive bodies, courts and police. Please indicate your trust in them on this scale, where 1 denotes maximum distrust and 7 indicates maximum trust.
Positive 5-7/Neutral/Negative 1-3
32a. President Yeltsin
32b. Parties
32c. Courts
32d. Police
32e. Civil servants, executive bodies
32f. Government
32g. Army
32h. Mass media
32i. Parliament
32j. Church
32k. Old trade unions
32l. New trade unions
32m. Patriotic associations
32n. Private enterprises
32o. Peasants' organisations
32p. Foreign organisations and experts advising our government

Q. Could any of the following states pose a threat for our national security?
Threat/Possible threat/Not a threat/Difficult to answer
33a. Japan
33b. China
33c. Iran
33d. Germany
33e. USA
33f. Poland
33g. Belarus
33h. Ukraine

34. Some people say that it would be better for this country if Parliament were suspended and the number of political parties reduced. How likely do you think it is that this could happen in this country in the next few years?
Very likely/Quite possible/Not very likely/Definitely unlikely/Difficult to answer

35. What would be your view if Parliament were dissolved and parties abolished?
Approve/Somewhat approve/Somewhat disapprove/Definitely disapprove/Difficult to answer

36. If there were strikes and demonstrations against price increases, would you join them or not?
Would join/Wouldn't/Do not know

37. Do you identify with any definite political party or movement or not?
(Show list): If Yes, which party?
Future of Russia
Russia's Choice
Civic Union
Democratic Party
Dignity and Mercy
Women of Russia
Kedr: Ecologists
Communist Party
Liberal-Democrats (Zhirinovsky)
PRES: Unity and Consent of Russia
Russian Movement Dem. Reform (Sobchak)
Russian National Union
Socialist Workers
National Salvation Front
Do not know
Refused to answer

38. How close are you to that party?
Very close/Somewhat/Not very close/Difficult to answer/Does not identify with party

39. Were you or anyone in your family a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union?
Yes, I was a member/One or more member of my family/No

40. Did you take part in the new Russian parliament elections last December 12?
Yes/No/Do not remember

41. IF YES: For which party or bloc did you vote?
Future of Russia
Russia's Choice
Civic Union
Democratic Party
Dignity and Mercy
Women of Russia
Kedr: Ecologists
Communist Party
Liberal-Democrats (Zhirinovsky)
PRES: Unity and Consent of Russia
Russian Movement (Sobchak)
Voted but do not remember how

42. IF NO: Why did you not take part in the elections?
Didn't understand what was going on
Don't believe politicians' promises
No party program matches my convictions
Disapprove of current government
The party I support not on ballot
Busy with own affairs; no time to vote
Had no desire to go to vote
Difficult to answer

43. Who should be more important in the Russian Federation, the President or Parliament, or should they have equal rights?
President/Parliament/Equal/Difficult to answer

44. What was your vote on the Russian Constitution?
For/Against/Don't remember how voted/Did not vote

45. Will the new Constitution ensure a lawful and democratic Russian state?
Yes/No/Difficult to answer

46. Will the new Constitution be able to guarantee the unity and territorial integrity of Russia?
Yes/No/Difficult to answer

47. If the President does not agree with the deputies in Parliament, what should he do?
Dismiss the parliament/Resign /Look for compromise/Do not know

48. If a Presidential election were held next month and the following names were on the ballot, whom would you vote for?
Yeltsin/Gaidar/Zhirinovsky/Zyuganov/Rutskoi/Chernomyrdin/ Yavlinsky/Would not vote/Don't yet know

49. If a Presidential election were held next month and the same names were on the ballot, but not President Yeltsin, whom would you vote for?
Gaidar/Zhirinovsky/Zyuganov/Rutskoi/Chernomyrdin/ Yavlinsky/Would not vote/Don't yet know

50. Should President Yeltsin resign or should he continue as President of the Russian Federation?
Resign/Continue/Don't know

51. Should Victor Chernomyrdin resign or should he continue as Prime Minister of the Russian government?
Resign/Continue/Don't know

52. Could the events of September-October 1993, when the Supreme Soviet was liquidated by force, occur again?
Yes/No/Do not know

53. Do you think military production in Russia should:
Remain the same/Increased/Reduced/Difficult to answer

54. Are you proud of being Russian?
Yes, I am proud/Yes, a little bit/Not at all/Not any more/Difficult to answer

55. What is your attitude to the following proposal: It is necessary to get rid of all nuclear weapons unilaterally and make Russia a nuclear-free zone?
Completely agree/Somewhat agree/Somewhat disagree/Definitely disagree/Difficult to answer

56. We all hope that there will not be another war, but if it were to come to that, would you be willing to fight for our country?
Yes, definitely/Probably/Probably not/Definitely not/Difficult to answer

57. In December 1991 leaders of Russia, Belorussia and the Ukraine decided to dissolve the USSR and found the CIS. What do you think of that now?
It was the right decision/It was the wrong decision/Difficult to answer

58. How has the disintegration of the USSR affected Russian living standards?
For better/For worse/No change/Difficult to answer

Q. With which republics of the former USSR should Russia have a close union?
59a. Belarus
59b. Ukraine
59c. Moldova
59d. Latvia
59e. Lithuania
59f. Estonia
59g. Uzbekistan
59h. Tajikistan
59i. Kirghizia
59j. Kazakhstan
59k. Turkmenistan
59l. Georgia
59m. Azerbaijan
59n. Armenia

60. How much help do you think Russia should give other CIS states?
As at present/More than today/Less than today/Difficult to answer

61. As you may know, 12 West European states form the European Community. What is your impression of the aims and activities of the European Community?
Positive/Neutral/Negative/No opinion/Do not know what it is

62. Do you ever think of yourself not only as a citizen of Russia but also as a European? Does this happen :
Often/Sometimes/Never/Don't know

63. If our country were to join the European Community in the future, would you be:
Strongly in favour/Somewhat in favour/Somewhat opposed/Strongly opposed/Do not know

64. Have you ever seriously considered going to work in a country in Western Europe?
Yes, I have considered/No, I have not considered/Have already worked there/Do not know


Q. Quite a lot has been done to privatize major enterprises. Do you agree or not with the following statements :
Definitely agree/Basically agree/Disagree somewhat/Disagree/Difficult to answer
Privatization is likely to:
65a. Make the economy more productive
65b. Make a few people rich
65c. Give everyone a material stake in state property
65d. Increase unemployment
65e. Benefit enterprise managers
65f. Put more goods in the shops
65g. Increase prices
65h. Mainly benefit foreigners
65i. The state will still look after enterprises if they get in real trouble

66. What did you do with your voucher?
Exchanged for cash
Exchanged for goods
Exchanged for:
Shares in enterprise where I work
Shares in investment fund
Shares in other enterprises
Kept it
Gave it to a relative
Never got a voucher

67. Are you satisfied with your investment?
Yes, definitely/Fairly satisfied/Not very satisfied/Very dissatisfied/Difficult to answer/Have no shares

68. How likely do you think it is that your place of work will be privatized?
Already privatized, never state-owned/Very likely/Some possibility/Little chance/No chance/Difficult to answer/Not employed

Q. IF your firm has been or does become privatized, do you think it will:
69a. Make your job more secure OR less secure?
More secure/Less secure/Make no difference/Difficult to answer

69b. Make it easier or harder to influence the managers?
Easier to exert influence/Harder to influence/Make no difference/Difficult to answer

69c. Make you work harder OR make work easier?
Work harder/Make work easier/Make no difference/Difficult to answer

69d. Lead to better pay OR worse pay?
Better pay/Worse pay/Make no difference/Difficult to answer

69e. Increase OR decrease understanding of your enterprise's problems?
Increase understanding/Decrease understanding/Make no difference/Difficult to answer

69f. Improve the quality of what you produce OR make it worse?
Improve quality/Reduce quality/Make no difference/Difficult to answer

69g. Reduce OR increase the number of people who work there?
Reduce number of employees/Increase number of employees/Make no difference/Difficult to answer

69h. Increase OR decrease the influence of workers on management of enterprises?
Increase influence/Decrease influence/Make no difference/Difficult to answer


70. Gender

71. Marital status

72. What is your economic status?
Employed in:
Transport driver
Trade, services
State institutions, communications, finance
Education, science, arts
Health services
Army, internal security (including Interior, KGB)
State sector: Supervisor, manager
New forms of employment (co-op, self-employment, business, etc.)
Outside labour force:
Pensioner without employment

73. Employment status of spouse:
Spouse employed/Spouse not employed/Not currently married

74. What is your educational background?
Up to 6 years at school
Up to 9 years at school
High school (10-11 years at school)
Vocational school
Technical college
University: up to 3 years, no degree
University degree
Post-graduate degree

75. Is your home:
Individual flat (separate)
Communal (shared)
Private house

76. How many family members, including children, live with you?
1/2/3/4/5/6/7 or more

77. How many persons in your household are employed :
None/1/2/3/4/More than 4

78. How many children up to 18 years of age live in your family?
None/1/2/3/4 or more

79. What is the present monthly income from net salaries, pensions, insurances, etc., divided by the number of family members including children?
Up to 25,000 roubles/25-50,000/50-75,000/75-100,000/100-250,000/ 250-500,000/Over 500,000 roubles/Refused answer, unclear

Does your household have:
80. A car
81. A telephone
82. A dacha in country
83. Colour television
84. More than 100 books at home

85. What is your nationality
Russian/Ukrainian/Tatar/Caucasuses, Central Asia, Baltic, etc/ Jewish/All others/Refused to answer

86. Have you ever been abroad, that is, outside the CIS?
Never/Once/Several times

87. Do you consider yourself religious?
Yes/Not really/No/Difficult to answer

88. What sort of place do you live in?
Rural area/Town of up to 100,000/City of 100-500,000/City over 500,000/Capital of region, krai or republic/St. Petersburg/Moscow

CSPP School of Government & Public Policy U. of Strathclyde Glasgow G1 1XQ Scotland