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New Russia Barometer IV Questionnaire


A 1. Which of these groups best describes the work that you do (or, for pensioners) you used to do?
Businessman, entrepreneur
Qualified non-manual with subordinates
Qualified non-manual without subordinates
Routine office
Supervisor of manual workers
Skilled manual worker
Unskilled worker
Farm own land
Employed to work on farm

A2b. In the past five years, have you been in employment and changed your job?
Did not change job/1 job change/2 job changes/3 job changes/ 4 or more job changes

A2c. What was the most important reason for leaving your last job?
Sick, no longer able to work, retirement age
Wages so low it wasn't worth carrying on at the job
Enterprise laid off a few people
Enterprise laid off a lot of people
Enterprise deteriorating, going to close
I was offered a better job elsewhere

A2d. Compared to your previous job, does your current job require:
More skill/About the same skill/Less skill

A3. What is your economic status today?
Unemployed and actively looking for a regular job
Unemployed and not looking for a regular job
Drawing pension but still employed
Maternity leave

A4. IF RETIRED and no longer at work: Which of the following statements applies to your life since stopping work?
a. Better health
b. Miss satisfaction of job
c. No longer have worries at work
d. Big fall in income
e. See more of friends
f. Nothing to do
h. More time to do what I like
i. Alone a lot

If you have had a job in the past year:
A5. How long have you held this job?
Less than 1 year/1/2/3/4/5 years/6-8 years/9-10 years/11-15 years/16-20 years/more than 20 years

A6. What branch of the economy is your employer? (Choose only one answer)
Agriculture, forestry, fishing
Heavy industry
Light industry
Gas, electricity, oil utilities
Transportation, communications, post office
Retail or wholesale trading (for example, restaurant, hotels, shops)
Banking, insurance, real estate property
Government administration
Health, social services
Education, science, research, culture
Military, police, public order

A7. Is your employer:
State enterprise
Budgetary institution (ministry, army, education, health, etc)
Mixed state and private
Privatized company, formerly a state enterprise
New private company
Foreign-owned or joint venture
Work on individual orders
Have own business, private farm
State or collective farm

A8. About how many people are employed in your enterprise?
Less than 20/ 21-50/ 51-200/ 201-500/ 500-1000/ More than 1000/ Don't know

A9. If you had a choice, would you prefer working for:
State enterprise, budgetary institution
Privatized company, formerly a state enterprise
New private company
Joint venture

A10a. In the past year have you been unemployed
Yes/No/Not in labour force

If Yes:
b. How many times?
Once/twice/3 or more times

c. How many weeks were you unemployed?
1/2/3-4/5-6/7-12/13-26/27-52 weeks

d. Did you receive unemployment compensation money from the state?
Yes/ No

If YES, unemployment benefit:
e. How many weeks?
1-4/5-9/10-12/13-25/more than 25 weeks

A11a. Have you had your regular wages paid late in the last year?
No / Yes

A11b. How many weeks were your wages not paid?
1-2/3-4/5-8/9-12/13-24/more than 24 weeks

A11c. Have you had your regular salary not paid at all in the last year?
No/ Yes

A11d. How many months were your wages late?
1/2/3/4/5/6 months or more

A11e. Have you been placed on n short time?
No/ Yes

A11f. How many weeks were you on short time?
1-2/3-4/5-8/9-12/13-24/more than 24 weeks

A12a. In the past year have you been away from work because of illness?
Yes/ No

A12b. About how many days were you away from work?
1-5/6-10/11-15/16-20/21-25/26-30/31-35/36-40/41-45/46-50/51 or more days

A13. If you wanted to find a new job, what would you do? (Can choose more than one).
Ask family, friends
Look at advertisements for help wanted
Go to official employment bureau
Approach different employers asking if they had work


B1. All in all, how satisfied are you with your job?
Very satisfied/Fairly satisfied/Fairly dissatisfied/Very dissatisfied/Difficult to answer/

B2. Which of the following are important to the management at your place of work?
Very important/Somewhat/Not very/Not at all
a. Doing what you are told
b. Working hard
c. Skill in doing difficult tasks
d. Having new ideas

B3. How long does it take you on average to travel to your place of work?
Less than 5 minutes/6-10/11-15/15-20/21-30/31-45/46-60/more than 60 minutes

B4. How do you usually travel to work?
Walk/Bicycle/Factory bus/Public bus/Underground/Train/Own car/Friend's car

B5. Are you worried about losing your job?
Yes, very worried/Somewhat worried/No/Difficult to answer

B6. Would you say that people at your place of work are often not doing anything useful or not producing anything?

B7a. At your place of work, are you sometimes asked to do favours for other people?
Yes, often/Yes, sometimes/Not very often/Not at all

B7b. Do people offer you money to do favours?

B8. Have you done or are you likely in the next year to do any of the following to improve your economic situation?
Have done/Likely/Unlikely/No
a. Learn a new skill
b. Work overtime at my regular job
c. Get an additional second job
d. Be self-employed fulltime
e. Start a business or open a shop employing other people
f. Get a regular job with a different employer
g. Get a job in another city
h. Get a job in another country

B9. Here are statements that people sometimes make about their work. Do you:
Totally agree/Somewhat agree/Somewhat disagree/Totally disagree/Difficult to answer
a. Too old to do anything different
b. A new job wouldn't pay any more money
c. No point in seeking a new job, no work around here.
d. Things are so messed up at work there is no point in trying to improve things

B10. Do you trust your employer to look after your interest?
Yes, definitely/ Somewhat/ Not much/ Not at all

B11a. Are you a member of a trade union?
Yes/No/No union at my place of work

B11b. Do you trust union officials at your place of work to look after your interests?
Yes, definitely/Somewhat/Not much/Not at all

B11c. Do you trust national officials of your union to look after your interests?
Yes, definitely/Somewhat/Not much/Not at all

B12. How much influence do the following have on the way your firm is run?
A lot/Some/Not much/None/Difficult to answer
a. Ministry
b. Local government
c. Managers
d. Trade union
e. Foreman, supervisor
f. Ordinary workers
g. Customers
h. Enterprises that supply our firm
i. Outside owners

B13. Is the management of your enterprise engaged in:
Great extent/Some extent/Very little/Not at all/Difficult to answer
a. Selling off property or equipment
b. Investing in new machinery
c. Producing different goods than five years ago
d. Taking money or assets from the enterprise for their private benefit
e. Creating an "enterprise within the enterprise" to produce and sell things

B14a. How likely do you think it is that your place of work will be privatized?
It was never state owned/Already privatized/Very likely/ Some possibility/Little possibility/Definitely not possible

B14b. Would you say that the privatization of your firm was fair to workers like yourself?
Very fair/Reasonably fair/Not very fair/Very unfair/Difficult to answer

B15. If your firm has been or does become privatized, do you think it will:
a. Make your own job more OR less secure?
More secure/Less secure/Same/Difficult to answer

b. Increase OR decrease influence of workers on management
More influence/Less influence/Same/Difficult to answer

c. Make you work harder OR make your work easier?
Harder/Easier/Same/Difficult to answer

d. Lead to better pay OR worse pay?
More pay/Less pay/Same/Difficult to answer

e. Improve quality of what is produced OR make it worse?
Better quality/Worse quality/Same/Difficult to answer

f. Reduce OR increase the number of employees?
Less employees/More employees/Same/Difficult to answer

B16. Overall, which best describes the situation at your place of work?
Enterprise is doing better
Nothing has changed in the past year
Enterprise is getting into bigger difficulties
It is near collapse

B17. What determines how much you are paid? (Can choose more than one).
Weekly or monthly wage is fixed
Paid according to the number of hours worked
Paid on piecework or commission, by how much I produce or sell
Get bonus if the enterprise does well
How well I get on with my supervisor, the manager

B18. Currently, do you and others in your household earn enough from this work to buy the things that your household really needs?
More than enough/Just enough/Not quite enough/Definitely not

B19a. Do you get any of the following benefits free or very cheap as part of the compensation from the firm, such as:
Meals/Housing/Medical care/Holiday facilities/Kindergarten for children/Children summer holiday facilities/Food/Goods in shortage/Other

B19b. If your employer were to stop providing these benefits, to make up for this how much would your monthly wage have to be increased?
0/Up to 25,000/26-50,000/51-100,000/101-150,000/151-200,000/201-500,000/more than 500,000 roubles per month


C1. There has been a lot of privatization of enterprises. Do you agree or disagree with the following statements: Privatisation tends to:
Agree/Somewhat agree/Somewhat disagree/Totally disagree
a. Make the economy more productive
b. Make a few people rich
c. Give everyone a material stake in the economy
d. Create unemployment
e. Keep real power in the hands of managers
f. Put more goods in the shops
g. Increase prices
h. Mainly benefit foreigners
i. State will not help the enterprise if it needs real help
j. Changes nothing

C2a. Every Russian was entitled to have a voucher that could be used to obtain shares in enterprises. What did you do with your voucher?
Exchanged it for cash or some goods
Invested it in shares in an enterprise where I work
Invested it in shares in other enterprise
Invested it in shares in investment fund
Gave it to relatives
Kept it
Never got a voucher
Lost it, it was stolen

IF exchanged voucher for shares: Have you:
C2b. Received a cash payment as a dividend

C2c. Received information about firm/fund's finances

C2d. Enterprise fund has disappeared, gone broke

C2e. No longer own shares; sold, gave them away

C2f. Are you satisfied with your investment?
Yes, definitely/Fairly satisfied/Not very satisfied/Very dissatisfied/ Difficult to answer


D1a. Do you have a second job that regularly brings in money?
No/ Yes

IF YES, has a second job
D1b. Is this additional work with:
State enterprise, farm, budgetary institution
Privatized company, formerly a state enterprise
New private company, cooperative, foreign owned
Private farming

D1c. About how many hours a week do you spend at this second job?
4 hours or less/5-8/9-12/13-16/17-20/21-30/31-40/more than 40 hours

D1d. About how much do you earn in an average week from this work?
Less than 10,000 roubles/10,000-19,000/20,000-29,000/30,000-39,000/
300,000-500,000/more than 500,000 roubles

D1e. Could this become your regular fulltime job in the foreseeable future?
Definitely/Possibly/Probably not/Definitely not


E1a. Does your household have any land where you grow food?

E1b. Do you sometimes help relatives or friends grow food on their land?

E2. About how much time do you personally spend each day standing in queues or searching for what you need in shops?
Not my duty/Half hour or less a day/About an hour a day/More than an hour

E3. Is your home a:
Multi-story flat with elevator/Low-rise flat/House/A room in a flat or house/Hostel, dormitory, barracks/Other

E4. If there is a problem in the building where you live, what would you do to get it fixed? (More than one answer accepted).
I or another member of the household would deal with it
Ask a friend to fix it
Complain to person responsible for collecting rent
Pay someone to fix it
Nothing I could do

E5a. Is your home owned by:
State or municipal council/Your family/Cooperative/Employer/ Privately rented

E5b. If your family does not own your house, is that because: (more than one answer allowed)
It is not for sale by the authorities
House is not worth owning
Don't have the money to buy it
Would cost too much money for heating, repairs
Too complicated, don't understand what to do
It is the business of another member of the family
Don't need to; will inherit the flat

E6. Do you or anyone in your household spend any time making repairs to your home or building an addition?

E7. Do you or other members of your household help friends or relatives do such things as growing food, queuing, looking after children, repairing house, etc.
Yes, often/Sometimes/Not very often/Not at all

E8. Do friends or relatives ever help members of your household with growing food, queuing, looking after children, repairing house, etc.
Yes, often/Sometimes/Not very often/Not at all

E9. It often helps to have connections with people who can do things for you. In the past twelve months, have you or anyone in your household used a connection to get things you couldn't get in the ordinary way, such as medicine, consumer goods, something for the children, etc?

E9b. Was it expensive?
Very expensive/Cost rather a lot/Didn't cost much/Practically nothing/Did not pay


G 1. Which activity on this card is the most important for the standard of living of you and your family? (Show Card)
Growing own food
Repairing house
What we get as favours
What we get with the help of friends and relatives
What we get in foreign currency
Earnings in second job, income from own business
Money that we get on the side, tips
Earnings from regular job
Pension or unemployment money
Benefits given at work, like meals, holidays
Don't know

G2. And which of these is second most important?
Growing own food
Repairing house
What we get as favours
What we get with the help of friends and relatives
What we get in foreign currency
Earnings in second job, income from own business
Money that we get on the side, tips
Earnings from regular job
Pension or unemployment money
Benefits given at work, like meals, holidays
Don't know

G3. In the past year, has your household been able to:
Save money
Just get by
Had to spend savings, sell household goods
Borrowed money
Spent savings and borrowed

G4. How long will be it before you have reached a standard of living with which you are content? (Show card)
Already content/1-2 years/3-5 years/6-10 years/Never/Don't know

G5. How long do you think it will take the government to sort out the economic problems of this country.
Already content/1-2 years/3-5 years/6-10 years/Never/Don't know

G6. Sometimes people have to do without things that people usually have. In the 12 months, has your household had to do without any of the following:
a. Food
b. Heating, electricity
c. Clothes that were really needed
d. Seeing friends, relatives

G7. If your household was very short of money, is there a friend or relative from whom it could borrow as much as a week's wages or pension?
Definitely/Probably/Probably not/Definitely not/Difficult to answer

G8. If you became seriously ill and needed some help in house, is there anyone outside your family that you could count on to help?
Definitely/ Probably/ Probably not/ Definitely not/ Difficult to answer


H1. All in all, how do you rate the economic situation of your family today?
Very satisfactory/Fairly satisfactory/Not very satisfactory/Very unsatisfactory

H2. How does it compare with five years ago?
Much better/A little better/Much the same/A little worse/A lot worse

H3. What do you think your economic situation will be in five years time?
Much better/A little better/Much the same/A little worse/A lot worse

H4. Do you feel that our country's economic reform programme is going too fast, too slow or at about the right speed?
Much too fast/A bit too fast/About the right speed/Too slow/Much too slow

H5. Here is a scale ranking how well an economy works. The top, plus 100, is the best and the bottom, minus 100, is the worst. Where on this scale would you put:
H5a. The economic system before the start of perestroika
H5b. Our present economic system
H5c. Our economic system in five years time


J1. Generally speaking, how interested are you in politics?
Very interested/Somewhat/Not very interested/Not at all interested/Difficult to answer

J2. How often do you talk about politics with other people?
Often/Sometimes/Seldom/Never/Difficult to answer

J3. Here are some words that can be used to describe people who take part in civil associations in this community. Which do you think applies to such people?
Definitely/Somewhat/Not very much/Not at all/DTA
a. Really care about others
b. Not to be trusted
c. Help make our society better
d. Manipulate things to help themselves
e. Intelligent
f. Dishonest

J4. Some people enjoy working in public organizations trying to solve local problems. Do you take part in such activities:
Often/Sometimes/Seldom/Never/Difficult to answer

J5. Here is a scale for evaluating the political system. The top, plus 100, is the best; at the bottom, minus 100, is the worst.
J5a. Where on this scale would you put the political system before perestroika?
J5b. Where on this scale would you put our present system of governing?
J5c. Where on this scale would you put the system of governing we will have in five years?

J6a. Some people think this country would be better governed if Parliament were suspended. How likely do you think this is to happen in the next few years?
Very likely/Maybe/Not very likely/Not at all likely/Difficult to answer

J6b. If Parliament was suspended, would you:
Strongly approve/Somewhat approve/Somewhat disapprove/ Strongly disapprove

J7a. How likely do you think the suspension of political parties is to happen in the next few years?
Very likely/Likely/Unlikely/No chance/Difficult to answer

J7b. If political parties were suspended, would you:
Strongly approve/Somewhat approve/Somewhat disapprove/ Strongly disapprove


K1. Do you approve or disapprove of how Boris Yeltsin is handling his duties as President of the Russian Federation?
Strongly approve/Somewhat approve/Somewhat disapprove/Strongly disapprove/Difficult to answer

K2. Here are some statements about the rules that should determine how the country is governed. Do you agree or disagree with the following statements:
Strongly agree/Somewhat agree/Somewhat disagree/Strongly disagree
K2a. The President should have the power to suspend the Parliament and rule by decree if he thinks this necessary
K2b. The Parliament should have the power to stop the President taking actions that it objects to

K3. If Russians living in another CIS country were under threat from the government there, the Russian government could respond in different ways. Which of the following would you agree with:
Total approval/Some approval/Some disapproval/Total disapproval
a. Negotiate with the other Republic
b. Use economic pressures
c. Resettle people of Russian nationality in the Russian Federation
d. Take military action
e. Nothing much can be done

K4. Here are some opinions that different people hold. For each pair, please say which you are inclined to agree with:
a. Do you think most people can be trusted
You can't be too careful in dealing with people

b. People around here help each other
No one else cares about those who have difficulties

c. Rising prices are the biggest threat for our family
Unemployment is the biggest threat for our family

d. It is better to have lots of goods in the shops even if the prices are much higher
It is better when prices were kept low by the state even though there are often few goods in the shops

e. Russian people have much the same values and interests as people in the West
Russian people have different values and interests from people in the West

f. It will take years for government to deal with the problems inherited from the Communists
If our system can't produce results soon, we should try some other system of government

K5. Our present system of government is not the only one this country has had. Some people say we would be better off if the country was governed differently. Please tell me for each statement whether you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree.
Completely agree/Somewhat agree/Somewhat disagree/Totally disagree
a. We should return to Communist rule
b. The army should govern the country
c. Important decisions about the economy should be made by experts and not the government and Parliament
d. A return to the Czar would be better
e. In elections, only people of Slavic nationalities should be allowed to vote
f. A tough dictatorship is the only way out of the current situation

K6. Would you agree or disagree with the view that the national government in Moscow can't really do much to affect conditions around here.
Definitely agree/Somewhat agree/Somewhat disagree/Definitely disagree

K7. If you went to see about something, would you expect fair treatment from:
Definitely/Probably/Not likely/Definitely not
a. Post office
b. Bank
c. Local grocery shop
e. Doctor's office
f. Municipal office
g. Police
h. Social security office


L1. People usually feel they have more in common with some groups than others. Could you tell me how much you have in common with each of the following groups of people?
A lot/Some things/Not much/Nothing
a. Workers
b. Farmers
c. Middle class
d. Educated people
e. Ethnic minorities
f. People in business for themselves, entrepreneurs
g. Green movement, ecologists
h. Religious people
i. Strong defenders of our national traditions
j. Former Communists

L2. If the Presidential elections were held next week and the following were the candidates on the ballot, who would you vote for?
Gaidar/Gorbachev/Zhirinovsky/Zyuganov/Luzhkov/Pamfillova/ Rutskoi/Rybkin/B. Fyodorov/S. Fyodorov/Chernomyrdin/Shumeiko/ Yavlinsky/Wouldn't vote/Don't know

L3. If an election was held for the Russian Parliament next Sunday, for which party or organizations would you vote?
Yablinsky bloc
Democratic Choice of Russia
Democratic Party
Economic Freedom
Women of Russia
Democratic Russia
Peoples Self Rule
Beer lovers
Against all
Wouldn't vote
Don't know

L4. Here are phrases that people sometimes use to describe former Communist Party members. Which do you think applies:
Try to help other people
Had to join to get job, promotion
Used party for own purposes
Ordinary people, same as everybody else


N1. Generally, during your life which time was the best?
End of the 1970s, beginning 1980s
Since 1991
Life good during all those years
Life bad during all those years
Difficult to answer

N2. As you know, the years when Gorbachev was in office are called the years of perestroyka. Which of the following opinions about perestroyka is the closest to yours?
An attempt to build socialism with a human fact
An attempt to continue the old political ways under new slogans
A sincere effort to find a social economic model of society suitable for our country.
A betrayal of real socialism and a sharp turn towards capitalism
The meaning of what happened in that period is not yet clear; it will only be understood by our descendants
Difficult to answer

N3. Which of the following views about the results of perestroyka is closest to yours?
Gorbachev's perestroyka succeeded and Yeltsin's course is a logical continuation, leading the country towards prosperity
Some of perestroyka's aims were implemented successfully; some turned out to be impossible to implement
Perestroyka's ideas were harmful for people and the current crisis is the direct proof of their failure
Perestroyka in fact did not take place
Disagree with all these alternatives


P1. Are you:
Male/ Female

P2. How old are you?
18-19years/20-29/30-39/40-49/50-59/60-69/70+ years

P3. And are you:
Married/Single, never married/Widow or Widower/Live together but not married/Separated/Divorced

P4. In your household, how many are:
0/1/2/3/4 or more
a. Employed
b. Pensioners not employed
c. Adults with unemployment, other social benefit
d. Adults without income (housewife, student, etc.
e. Children under age of 18

P5. How many members of your family, including yourself, have been unemployed or on unpaid leave at some time during the past year?
None/1/2/3/more than 3

P6. What monthly income should every family member earn, in your opinion, ensure:
6a. Normal life
6b. Minimum existence
6c. What is the actual monthly income per member in your household at present?

P7a. How old were you when you completed full time schooling?
10 - 26 years or more

P7b. What is the highest educational qualification you have or expect to get in the next few years?
Elementary or lower
7-8 Grades
Secondary school without certificate
Vocational & secondary incomplete
Secondary with certificate
Vocational & Secondary
Technical college
University without certificate
University degree

P8. Compared to your parents, have you had:
More education/About the same/Not as much

P 9. Some people are interested in books, others are not. How about you. Do you:
Never bother reading books/Occasionally read a book/Read books often

P10a. Does your household have?
Washing machine/Car/Telephone/Dacha/Colour television

10b. Are you planning to buy any of these in the next year?
Washing machine/Car/Telephone/Dacha/Colour television

P11. If you were shopping, which would you buy if the choice was between:
P11a. Russian chocolates or Imported western chocolates at the same price?
P11b. An imported Western watch or a Russian watch at the same price?
P11c. A Russian colour television set that was half the price of a Japanese set?

P12. Compared to price increases in the past twelve months, do you think that in the next twelve months prices will increase :
A lot faster/A little faster/At about the same rate/A little less/A lot less

P13. Do you think that your earnings or pension in the next twelve months will increase:
A lot more than prices/A little more than prices/About the same as prices/A little less than prices/ A lot less than prices

P14a. As for religion, do you consider yourself:
Atheist/Russian Orthodox/Other Christian/Muslim/Other/ Believer without a particular church/Difficult to give a definite answer

P14b. How often do you go to church?
At least once a week/At least once a month/Few times a year/Very rarely/Never

P15a. What is your nationality?
Russian/Belarussian/Jew/German/Tatar/Udmurt/Ukrainian/Cherkess/ Other

P15b. Do you ever think of yourself as a European?

P16a. Does your family have any savings?
Yes, in roubles/Yes in hard currency/No

P16b. In the past year have your savings:
Increased/Stayed the same/Decreased/No savings at all

P17. Do you think it is a good idea for people with savings to keep them in a foreign currency such as dollars/ Deutsche Marks?
Definitely/Probably/Doesn't make any difference/No

P18. Compared to other households in this country, would you say your standard of living is:
Above average/ Average/ Below average

P19. How would you rate the present economic situation in this town/ district?
Very satisfactory/Fairly satisfactory/Not very satisfactory/Very unsatisfactory

P20. In former times, many people were members of the Communist Party. Were you or anyone in your family a party member?
Yes: a member and spent time in party work
A member but didn't really spend any time on it
Someone else in family a party member
No one


Q 5. Administrative status of place of interview is:
St Petersburg
Capital of republic
Capital kray, oblast
Rayon centre
Other towns
Settlement of urban type
Rural, village

R6. Population of place of interview:
Over 1 million
500,000 to 1 million
100,000 to 500,000
Rural, village

CSPP School of Government & Public Policy U. of Strathclyde Glasgow G1 1XQ Scotland