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Russia VI Questionnaire


EM 1. What is your economic status today?
Self-employed, own business
Unemployed, looking for a job
Unemployed, not looking for a job
Drawing pension but still employed
Maternity leave

EM 2. Which of these terms best describes your employer (For pensioners or not working: Your last employer)?
State budgetary organization, e.g. education, health care, administration
State-owned enterprise
Privatized enterprise
New private firm, never in state sector

EM 3. Do you and other family members earn enough from your main job to buy all you really need?
Definitely enough/Just enough/Not enough/Definitely not enough

EM 4. In the past 12 months have you or anyone in your family been
4a. Unemployed
4b. Received wages, pension late
4c. Working only part of week
4d. Not been paid at all

EM 5. In the past twelve months did your family often, sometimes, rarely or never have to do without:
5a) Food
5b) Heating, electricity
5c) Clothes, shoes that are really necessary


EV 1. Here is a scale ranking how well an economy works. The top, plus 100, is the best and the bottom, minus 100, is the worst. Where on this scale would you put:
1a. The economic system before the start of perestroyka
1b. Our current economic system
1c. Our economic system in five years.

EV 2. Who is to be blamed for our economic problems and to what extent?
Mainly/Some extent/Not much/Not at all/Difficult to answer
2a. Yeltsin
2b. Communists
2c. Businessmen, entrepreneurs,
2d. Government
2e. Governments of Western countries
2f. Communist nomenklatura
2g. Apparatus of President and government
2h. Prime Minister Chernomyrdin
2i. Mafia
2j. Jews

EV 3. How long do you think it will take the government to solve the economic problems in the country?
1-2 years/3-5 years/6-10 years/Never/Already resolved/Don't know

EV 4. All in all, how do you rate the economic situation of your family today?
Very satisfactory/Fairly satisfactory/Not very satisfactory/Very unsatisfactory

EV 5. How would you compare your family's economic situation with five years ago?
Much better now/Somewhat better/Same/Somewhat worse now/Much worse

EV 6. What do you think the economic situation of your family will be in five years?
Much better in future/Somewhat better/Same/Somewhat worse/Much worse

EV 7. What is your view of allowing foreigners to own the following in Russia:
Definitely approve/Somewhat approve/Somewhat disapprove/Definitely disapprove/Difficult to answer
7a) Small enterprises, shops, cafés
7b) Big plants and factories
7c) Small plots of land
7d) Large plots of land

EV 8. How often do you discuss politics with other people?


IN 1 Here are some opinions that different people hold. For each pair, please say which is definitely closer to your opinion or somewhat closer.
1a. Inflation is the bigger threat for our family
OR Unemployment is the bigger threat

1b. It is better when there are plenty of goods in the shops even if they are expensive
OR it is better when the prices are kept low by the state even if there is few goods in the shops

lc. Incomes should be made more equal
OR Individual achievement should determine how much people are paid

1d. State should be responsible for the welfare of everyone
OR Individuals should take responsibility for themselves

IN 2. On whom do you rely first of all when having problems? (One or two answers)
2a. Myself
2b. Friends, relatives
2c. Employer
2d. State
2e. Public organizations such as trade unions, etc.
2f. Charities
2g. Church
2h. Other
2i. Difficult to answer

IN 3. What was the total income of your family during the last month from all sources?

IN 4. In the past year has your household been able to:
Make savings/Just get by/Spent savings/Borrowed money/Spent savings and borrowed

IN 5. How long will it be before you have reached a standard of living with which you are content?
1-2 years/3-5 years/6-10 years/Never/Already resolved/Don't know


PA 1. Here is a scale for evaluating the political system. The top, plus 100, is the best, and the bottom, minus 100, is the worst. Where on this scale would you put:
1a. the political system we had before perestroyka
1b. our current political system
1c. the political system we will have in five years

PA 2. How important would you say it is for government to do something about?
Very/Somewhat/Not very/Not at all/Difficult to answer
2a. Reduce prices
2b. Unemployment
2c. Decline of morality
2d. Preventing civil war
2e. Pollution of air, water, green spaces
2f. Crime in streets
2g. War in Chechnya
2h. Fate of Russians in the near abroad
2i. Improve public services
2j. Maintain Russia as a great power
2k. Attack privileges

PA3. Do you think the President of Russia should have the right to suspend the Parliament and introduce presidential rule by decree if he considers that necessary.
Strongly agree/Somewhat agree/Somewhat disagree/Strongly disagree

PA4. Parliament should have the right to stop the President taking decisions that it considers wrong.
Strongly agree/Somewhat agree/Somewhat disagree/Strongly disagree

PA5. To what extent do you trust each of these institutions in our society?
Please indicate on this 7-point scale, where 1 represents no trust and 7 great trust.
a. Parties
b. Courts
c. Police
d. Civil servants
e. Army
f. Duma
g. Religious organizations
h. Collective farms
i. Trade unions
j. The President of Russia
k. Private entrepreneurs

PA6. Do you think that Russia's leaders control the situation in the country or that the situation is beyond control?
Situation under control/Out of control/Difficult to answer

Here are some statements about how the system of government ought to work.
PA7a. Do you approve or disapprove of how Boris Yeltsin handled his duties in his first term as President?
Strongly approve/Somewhat approve/Somewhat disapprove/Strongly disapprove

PA 7b. How do you think President Yeltsin will handle his duties now that he has been re-elected as President?
Very well/Fairly well/Not so well/Badly

PA8. Some people think that this country would be governed better if the Parliament were suspended. If Parliament was suspended, would you:
Strongly approve/Somewhat approve/Somewhat disapprove/Strongly disapprove

PA9. Compared to the regime we had before perestroyka, would you say that, in terms of each of the following it is:
Now much better than before/Better/Much the same/A little worse/ Much worse
9a. Everyone has the right to say what they think
9b. You can join any organization you like
9c. People like me can have an influence on government
9d. Everybody has freedom of choice in religious matters
9e. Everyone can decide individually whether or not to participate in politics.

PA10. Would you say that we will need years before we solve the problems our political system inherited from the regime we had before perestroyka
Definitely agree/Somewhat agree
OR If the political system does not produce good results soon, we should choose another?
Definitely agree/Somewhat agree

PA11. There are different opinions about the nature of the state. To what extent would you agree with the following statements on this point:
Completely agree/Generally agree/Somewhat disagree/Generally disagree
11a. It would be better to restore the Communist system
11b. The army should govern the country
11c. The major economic decisions should be taken by experts, not the governments or parliament
11d. We should restore the tsar
11e. A tough dictatorship is the only way out of the current situation

PA12. Would you agree or disagree with the view that the central government in Moscow can't really do much to affect conditions around here?
Definitely agree/Somewhat agree/Somewhat disagree/Definitely disagree

PA13. If Russians in the near abroad were under threat from the government there, the Russian government could respond in different ways. Which of the following actions would you support:
Totally approve/Somewhat approve/Somewhat disapprove/Totally disapprove
13a. Negotiate
13b. Use economic pressure
13c. Resettle people of Russian nationality in the Russian Federation
13d. Military action
13e. Nothing can be done

PA14. Do you think any of the following could be a substantial threat to the security and order in the world:
Big threat/Some threat/Little threat/No threat at all
14a. China
14b. Germany
14c. Iran
14d. USA
14e. Republics of the former USSR
14f. People of other nationalities living in Russia.


VP1. Some people said it was bad to hold the presidential election, because it would only stir up trouble. Others thought it was constitutionally needed. What do you think?
Definitely right/Somewhat desirable/Not so good/Definitely wrong

VP2. Did you vote in the first round of the Presidential election in June, when there were 11 different candidates on the ballot?

2a. Which candidate did you favour?
Against all

2c. Why not? (More than one answer acceptable)
c1 Not eligible
c2 No suitable candidate reflecting my views
c3 Travelling, away from home
c4 My vote does not matter
c5 Sick, not convenient to go to the polls that day
c6 Elections dishonest, results will be forged
c7 Don't understand politics
c8 Elections don't influence what government does
c9 Difficult to answer

VP3a. Did you vote in the second round of the Presidential election, when Boris Yeltsin and Gennadii Zyuganov were the only candidates?
Yes/ No

3b. Which candidate did you favour?
Against both

3c. Why not? (more than one answer acceptable)
c1 Not eligible
c2 No suitable candidate reflecting my views
c3 Travelling, away from home
c4 My vote does not matter
c5 Sick, not convenient to go to the polls that day
c8 Elections dishonest, results will be forged
c9 Don't understand politics
c10 Elections don't influence what government does
c11 Difficult to answer

IF VOTED either ballot:
VP 4. Some people voted for a candidate because they favoured his views; others did so because they feared the alternative was worse. In casting your vote, did you:
Definitely agree with your candidate
Usually agree with what your candidate said
Main reason for my choice was dislike of opponent
Main reason was fear of opponent winning

VP 5. Last December there was an election for the Duma. If you case a vote for the party list, which candidate did you vote for?
(All 43 parties listed)


H 1. Over the past 12 months, would you say your physical health has been:
Very good/Good/Average/Poor/Very poor

H 2. Over the past 12 months, would you describe your emotional and mental health as:
Very good/Good/Average/Poor/Very poor

H 3. Have you ever suspected that you had heart trouble or had a doctor tell you that you have a heart problem?
3a. Never had problem
3b. Heart attack
3c. Angina
3d. High blood pressure
3e. Nervous heart problems
3f. Stroke
3g. Pre-stoke condition
3h. Heart beats faster
3i. Irregular heart beat
3j. Valve disease
3k. Congenital heart disease
3l. Other
3m. Difficult to answer

H 4. Do you feel safe when you go out on the streets?
Definitely/Somewhat/Not much/Definitely not/Difficult to answer

H 5. Here is a list of activities that you might undertake at any time. Does your health now limit your ability to do some of these things? If so, how much?
Yes, a lot/A little/Not at all
5a. Vigorous activities, such as running, lifting heavy weights, strenuous sports
5b. Moderate activities, such as moving a table or pushing a vacuum cleaner
5c. Lifting or carrying bag of cereal, sugar
5d. Climbing several flights of stairs
5e. Climbing one flight of stairs
5f. Bending, kneeling or stooping
5g. Walking two kilometres
5h. Walking a kilometre
5i. Walking a hundred metres
5j. Bathing and dressing yourself

H 6. How much do you agree or disagree with the following statements. Please choose the one answer for each:
Agree: Strongly/Some/A little Disagree: Strongly/Some/A little
6a. At home, I feel I have control over what happens in most situations
6b. Keeping healthy depends on things that I can do myself
6c. There are certain things I can do for myself to reduce the risk of a heart attack
6d. There are certain things I can do for myself to reduce the risk of getting cancer
6e. I feel that what happens in my life is often determined by things beyond my control
6f. Over the next 5 to 10 years I expect to have a lot more good experiences than bad
6g. I often have the feeling that I am treated unfairly
6h. In the past ten years my life has been full of changes that have been very unexpected
6i. I gave up trying to make big improvements and changes in my life a long time ago
6j. (IF EMPLOYED): At work, I feel I have control over what happens in most situations.

H 7. In the past year, have you or any member of your family been in hospital? If so, how would you describe the treatment given?
Very good/Good/So-So/Not so good/Bad/No one in family in hospital
7a. Was it expensive?
Didn't need to pay anything/Only paid a bit/Cost a lot

H 8. In the past year have you sometimes felt so bad that you could not go to work or engage in your normal everyday activities?
Not at all/Once or twice/A number of times

8a. Did you visit a doctor? If so, how would you describe the treatment given:
Very good/Good/So-So/Not so good/Bad/Did not go to a doctor/ Other

8b. IF NO: 8d Was that because (Can give more than one answer)
Not that ill
Doctors don't really care about patients
Inconvenient, hard to reach
Not worth the money they want
Went to a pharmacist for medicine
Used home remedy

H 9. Do you smoke cigarettes?
Yes, smoke now/Smoked in past/Never smoked

H 10. Do you sometimes drink alcoholic beverages? If so, how often?
Never drink/Less than once a month/About once a month

H 10a. IF DRINK: On average, how much do you drink in one go?
Less than a measure of vodka, glass of wine, bottle of beer
One measure of vodka, glass wine, bottle beer
Two measures of vodka, half a bottle of wine, litre of beer
Big glass of vodka, bottle of wine, two litres of beer
Bottle of vodka, two bottles of wine, four litres of beer
More than a bottle of vodka or two bottles of wine or four litres beer

H 11. What is your weight? -------- kg

H 12. And what is your height? ------------ cm


S 1. Gender

S 2. Age ____________years

S 3. Family situation
Single/Married/Live together/Separated/Divorced/Widow

S 4. In your family:
a. How many people live in your household?
b. How many family are working now?
c. How many children are age 15 or less?

S 5. Some people are interested in books, others are not. How about you?
Never bother reading books
Occasionally read a book
Read books often

S 6. What education did you have?
Elementary or lower
Secondary incomplete
Secondary, no certificate
Vocational, secondary incomplete
Secondary academic
Vocational + secondary
Technical college
Higher incomplete
University diploma

S 7. Compared to your parents, have you had:
More education/ About the same/ Not as much

S 8. What is your nationality?
Russian/Native republic/Other

S 9. Do you ever think of yourself a European?

S 10. In the past, many people were members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Were you or anyone from your family a CPSU member?
Active member
Member but did not participate in the party's work
Another in family was member
No one a member

S 11. There are people in a high position in this society and others who have a low status. What position do you have now?
1=Highest status 10 =Lowest status

S 12. Some people go to church and others do not. How about yourself
Never go to church
Very rarely go to church
Occasionally go
Go to church at least once a month

S 13. Do you have any of the following goods in your house?
a. Colour TV
b. Car
c. Video cassette recorder

S 14. And is your house:
Flat with 1 dwelling room
2 rooms
3 rooms
More than 3 rooms
Part of a communal flat with shared kitchen

CSPP School of Government & Public Policy U. of Strathclyde Glasgow G1 1XQ Scotland