University of Strathclyde US, UK and EU Flags Takes you to the main page for this section

Measuring Social Capital

The following questionnaire was specifically designed to measure multiple forms of social capital in a variety of situations commonly faced by most households. It was part of the global Social Capital Initiative of the World Bank, supported by a grant from the Danish government development funds. The questionnaire was administered as part of the CSPP programme of studies of mass response to transformation in post-Communist countries; it was the seventh in a series of New Russia Barometer studies commenced in January 1992 (for more details follow the Barometer Surveys link on the CSPP Home Page.

Fieldwork was by Levada Centre (the Russian Centre for Public Opinion Research) between 6 March and 13 April 1998. The universe for the multi-stage stratified random sample was the adult population of the Russian Federation. There were a total of 2,002 respondents.


The full text of all questions follow; a Russian-language version is available from the CSPP at a nominal charge. The replies, subdivided by age, are given in SPP 303. The questionnaire has the following divisions:
A. Getting Food
B. Housing
C. Employment
D. Economic Situation
E. Saving and Borrowing
F. Media of Information
G. Public Services
H. National Affairs
J.   Health
K. Community Associations
L. Social Background


A.1a-Does your household have a plot of land where you grow food?
            Yes/ No


A.1b-About how much time are you or other members of your household working this land during the season?
             Several hours a day/several times a week/ Saturday or Sunday/ Occasionally

IF NO: A.1c-Do you sometimes help relatives or friends grow food on their land?
            Often/ Sometimes/ seldom/ never

A.2- How often do you buy or get food from the following sources?
            Regularly/ Sometimes/ Seldom/ Never
            a- Big stores
            b- Local shops and kiosks
            c- Street traders
            d- What we grow ourselves or on land of friends
            e- Given food by friends, relatives

A.3-Does your family have enough food for properly balanced nutrition?
            Almost always/ Frequently/ Sometimes / Rarely, hardly ever

A.4-How often do you yourself go shopping for food?
            Almost every day/ Several times a week/ Weekly/ Occasionally/ Not at all

A.5- What would you do if a shop assistant made a mistake when you bought something? (One answer only)
            Ask salesperson to correct mistake /Complain very loudly to the manager so other customers would know/ Find a friend who has a connection at the store to deal with the problem / Would not go back there again to buy anything /Nothing you can do

A.6- In the past twelve months did your family often, sometimes, rarely or never have to do without:
            Often / Sometimes / Rarely / Never/
            a- Food
            b- Heating
            c- Electricity
            d- Clothes, shoes that are really necessary


B.1- Is your house a:
            Multi-story flat with elevator/ Low-rise flat without elevator/ Single-family residence/ A room in a flat or house/ Hostel, dormitory, barracks/ Other

B.2- Who owns your house?
            State or municipal property/ I or my family owns it / Housing cooperative/ Enterprise, state farm or collective farm/ Property of other private person

B.3- In the past year has anyone in your household spent time making repairs, improvements or painting your home?
            Often/ Sometimes/ Occasionally/ Not at all

B.4-If you had something broken at home, what would be the best way to get it fixed?
            I or another member of the household would fix it / Ask a friend to fix it/ Pay someone to fix/ Send a complaint to communal housing services or owner of property/ Find some who knows people in the communal housing service/ Nothing I could do

B.5- What should a family do to get a government-subsidized or enterprise- subsidized flat, even if not entitled to it according to the rules?
            Offer a "tip" to the official allocating it/ Use connections/ Tell officials that special circumstances justify a flat/ Borrow or save money to buy a private flat/ Nothing can be done

B.6- Would you say that to get a house or flat in this neighbourhood, most people had to have connections?
            Yes, definitely/ It usually helps/ Not particularly/ Not at all

B.7a- How would you rate your current housing conditions?
            Very satisfactory/ Fairly satisfactory/ Not very satisfactory/ Bad

B.7b- Have you lived here for the past ten years, since the changes of perestroyka?
            Yes/ No

a. IF YES: Is the condition of this house now:

b. IF NO: Compared to your house ten years ago, is this place:
            A lot better/ A little better /Much the same /A little worse /A lot worse

B.8-Would you say that people who live around here are usually ready to help each other or does each household have to depend on itself?
            People usually helpful / People sometimes helpful /People seldom helpful/ People not at all helpful /Don't know; don't mix with neighbours

B.9- Do you feel safe when you go out on the streets?
            Definitely/ Somewhat/ Not much/ Definitely not

B.10- Since the big changes of perestroyka, when you go out on the streets do you feel:
            A lot safer / A little safer/ Much the same/ A little less safe/ A lot less safe

B.11- If a person does not feel safe on the streets, what should he or she do?
            Definitely/ Probably/ Not much help/ No help
            a- Complain to police.
            b- Have other people with you when going out
            c- Go out as little as possible after dark
            d- Carry something for protection, like a knife or even a gun.
            e- Take a fierce dog

B.12- In the past two years, have you or anyone you know been attacked or had something stolen from you when on the street?
            Yes, self/ Member of family/ Friend/ No one

B.13- If a person worries about a theft from the house, what should he or she do?
            Definitely/ Probably/ Not much help/ No help
            a- Complain to police.
            b- Get stronger locks and stronger door.
            c- Make sure someone is usually in the house
            d- Keep a club or knife or gun handy in the house
            e- Move some place safer to live
            f- Keep a fierce dog

B.14- Do you worry about thieves breaking in your house and stealing things?
            Yes, a lot/ Sometimes/ Not much/ Not at all

B.15- In the past two years, have you or anyone you know had their house broken into and something stolen?
            Yes, our house/ House of friend/ No one


C0.1-What is your current economic status?
            Employed / Self-employed, own business, own farm/ Unemployed, getting state unemployment benefit/ Unemployed, not getting state unemployment benefit / Pensioner but still employed/ Pensioner/ Maternity leave/ Housewife/ Student

C0.2- If there was a mistake in calculating your pension, what would you do? (More than one answer acceptable)
            Write a letter to the pension office asking the mistake to be sorted out / Keep going to the pension office to demand action until it is sorted out/Go to a friend to see if they can help you/ Offer a present to a person who controls pension administration/ Nothing I could do

C0.3- In the past 12 months has your pension:
            Always arrived on time/ A few weeks late/ A few months late

C1.1- To which group of workers do you belong?
            Owner, manager of firm / Professional/ Qualified specialist with subordinates/ Qualified specialist, no subordinates/ Technical, auxiliary personnel / Foreman/ Skilled manual worker/ Unskilled manual worker/ Farmer/ Agricultural worker, collective farm member/ Self-employed without any employees

C1.2- Which of these terms best describes your employer:
            State-owned enterprise/ State budgetary organization /Mixed ownership (state and private) enterprise/ Privatized (former state) enterprise / New private/ Foreign enterprise/ Joint venture/ Self-employed/ Own business/ State or collective farm/ Other

C1.3- If you had a choice, would you prefer working for:
            State enterprise, budgetary institution/ Privatized company, formerly a state enterprise/ New private company/ Joint venture/ Self-employed

C2.1a- About how many people are employed at the place where you work?
            Less than 20/ 21-50/ 51-200/ 201-500/ 500-1000/ More than 1000/ Don't know

C2.1b- At your place of work, about how much of the week do people REALLY spend producing things for the enterprise?
            All the time/ Almost all time/ More than half time/ About half / Less than half/ Very little, none

C2.1c- Compared to before perestroyka, has the time people at your place of work spend producing things for the enterprise changed?
            Spend more time really working/ About the same/ Less time really working/ Don't know, wasn't at the same place

C2.2- Do the people who are your immediate colleagues at work usually help each other when problems arise?
            Usually/ Sometimes/ Not very often/ Rarely, not at all

C2.3- Do you trust your employer to look after your interests?
            Yes, definitely/ Somewhat/ Not much/ Not at all

C2.4a- Are you a member of a trade union?
            Yes/ No/ No union at my place of work

C2.4b- Do you trust union officials at your place of work to look after your interests?
            Yes, definitely/ Somewhat/ Not much/ Not at all

C2.4c- Do you trust national officials of your union to look after your interests?
            Yes, definitely/ Somewhat/ Not much/ Not at all

C3.1a- At your place of work, are you sometimes asked to do favours for other people?
            Yes, often/ Yes, sometimes/ Not very often/ Not at all

C3.1b- Do people offer you money to do favours?
            Often/Sometimes/ Occasionally/ Never

C.4.0- All in all, how satisfied are you with your job?
            Very satisfied/ Fairly satisfied/ Fairly dissatisfied/ Very dissatisfied

C4.1- Do you earn enough from your main job to buy all you really need?
            Definitely enough / Just enough / Not enough / Definitely not enough

C4.2- How much did you earn last month from all sources for the work that you did? (In new Roubles)

C4.3- What percentage of your wages are deducted as taxes to pay your social insurance and public services?
            % taxes deducted/ Employer doesn't deduct taxes / Don't know

C4.4 If someone at your place of work was not paid money they had earned, what would you advise to be done? (More than one answer acceptable)
            Ask the manager to pay what is due / Go to your supervisor for help/ Offer a present to a person who controls paying the wages / Take things from employer to sell and get your money that way/ Don't turn up for work, quit the job/ Nothing can be done

C 5.1- In the past 12 months at any time have you been:
            YES/ NO
            a- Unemployed
            b- Received wages late

C5.1c- How many weeks did this happen?
            1 week/ 2 weeks/ 3 weeks/ 4 weeks/ 5 weeks/ 6 weeks/ 7-8 weeks/ 9-12 weeks/ 13-24 weeks/ More than 24 weeks

C5.1d- Not been paid at all

C5.1e- How many months did this happen?
            0 months/ 1 month/ 2 months/ 3 months/ 4 months/ 5 months/ 6 months/ 7-12 months/ More than 12 months

Impact of Unemployment
Currently unemployed
Formerly unemployed
Employed all year
Outside labour force

C5.2- Are you worried about losing your job?
            Yes, very worried/ Somewhat worried / No / Difficult to answer

C6.1- How long have you held your current job?
            Under a year/ 1 year/ 2 years/ 3 years/ 4 years/ 5 years/ 6-10 years/ 11-15 years/ 16-20 years/ More than 20 years

C6.2- If you were looking for a new job, what would you do? (Can choose more than one)
            Go to official employment bureau/ Ask family / Ask friends / Look at help wanted advertisements / Approach different employers asking if they had work / Try to find work in another city/ Offer a present or payment to manager to give me job / Don't know

C6.3- If you lost your current job, how confident are you that you could find another?
            Definitely could get another job / Probably could do so/ It would be difficult/ Doubt that I could find another job

C6.4- Have you done any of the following to improve your economic situation in the past year or are you likely to do so in the next year?
            Have done/ Likely/ Unlikely/ No
            a- Learned a new skill
            b- Worked overtime at regular job
            c- Became self-employed
            d- Start a business or open a shop
            e- Try to find a job with better employer

C6.5- Here are statements people sometimes make about their place of work.
            Completely agree/ Somewhat agree/ Somewhat disagree/ Completely disagree/ Difficult to answer
            a- Too old to do anything different
            b- A new job wouldn't pay any more money
            c- Don't know anyone who would give me a job
            d- Content with what I have
            e- No point in seeking a new job, no work around here

C 7.1 With economic reform, some people have been able to make more money. Do you agree or disagree with the following statements about people who are now making a lot of money?
            Definitely/ Somewhat agree/ Somewhat disagree/ Definitely disagree
            a- Work hard
            b- Take advantage of other people
            c- Help make our economy grow, create jobs for people
            d- Use connections
            e- Intelligent
            f- Dishonest
            g- Have foreign connections

C7.2- In the past month, have your or anyone else in this family earned money by working at a second job too?
            Yes self/ Yes, another member of family/ No

C7.3- Is this work:
            State budgetary institution, enterprise/ Privatized company/ New private enterprise, cooperative / Self-employed/ Work with friends, families


D1- Here is a scale ranking how well an economy works. The top, plus 100, is the best and the bottom, minus 100, is the worst. Where on this scale would you put:
            a- The economic system before perestroyka?
            b- Our current economic system
            c- Our economic system in five years

D2- All in all, how do you rate the economic situation of your family today?
            Very satisfactory / Fairly satisfactory / Not very satisfactory / Very unsatisfactory

D3- How would you compare your family's economic situation with what it was before perestroyka?
            Much better now / Somewhat better / Same / Somewhat worse now / Much worse

D4- What do you think the economic situation of your family will be in five years?
            Much better in future / Somewhat better / Same / Somewhat worse / Much worse

D.5- What was the total income of your family during the last month from all sources? (Old Roubles)
            ______ Roubles

D.6a- Which activity on this card is the most important for the standard of living of you and your family?

D.6b- And which is second in importance
(SHOW CARD) (Only one answer for each)
            Growing own food/ Repairing house / What we get as favours / What we get with the help of friends and relatives/ What we get in foreign currency / Earnings in second job, own business/ Money that we get on the side, tips / Earnings from regular job / Pension or unemployment money /Benefits given at work, like meals, holidays


E.1- If a person is entitled to get a social benefit, such as unemployment pay, what should he or she do? (One answer only)
            File a claim at the appropriate office and the money will come / File a claim but go back often until they give you what you are entitled to / Find a friend or personal contact who can get your benefit paid / Offer a tip or present to an official to make sure the benefit is paid/ Nothing you can do to get your entitlement

E.2a- Have you or anyone in your family filed such a claim in the past year?
            Yes, self/ Yes, family member/ No

E.2b-Was it paid:
            Promptly/ After delays/ Not paid

E.3- Could you borrow as much as a week's wage or pension from:
            Definitely/ Probably/ Probably not/ Definitely not/ Difficult to answer
            a- Bank
            b- Friend or a relative

E.4- If you had some savings, where would you keep them? (Two choices accepted)
            Bank / Shares in companies/ Keep roubles in cash/ Hard currency such as Dollars, Deutsche Marks/ Gold, precious metals/ Other/ Don't know

E.5-When you are too old to work, what do you expect to rely on? (more than one answer permitted)
            State pension/ Children, relatives will provide/ Private insurance, pension/ Savings in bank/ Own a house, land/ Don't know

E.6a- Do you still have any investment fund or enterprise shares bought with the privatization vouchers?
            Yes/ No/ Don't know

E.7- Which of these statements are you more inclined to agree with:
            Definitely first/ Somewhat first/ Definitely second/ Somewhat second/ Don't know

a- Individuals should be responsible for their own welfare
The state should be responsible for everyone's economic security.

b- State ownership is the best way to run an enterprise
An enterprise is best run by private entrepreneurs

c- Government should cut taxes even if it means reducing spending on education, health care and pensions
Even if it means people like myself paying more in taxes, government should spend more on education, health and pensions

d- It is better when there are plenty of goods in the shops even if they are expensive
It is better when the prices are kept low by the state even if there are few goods in the shops

e- Goods made in other countries can be imported and sold here if people want to buy them
There should be strict limits on selling foreign goods here to protect the jobs of people in this country

f- It will take years for government to deal with problems inherited from the Communists
Our new system of government ought to be able to deal with problems right now, regardless of who caused them


F.1- How often do you usually read or watch:
            Regularly/ Sometimes/ Seldom/ Never
            a- National papers
            b- Regional, local papers
            c- National television
            d- Regional, local television

F.2a- How often do you talk about the problems of this country with friends?
            Regularly/ Sometimes/ Seldom/ Never

F.2b- Do people often ask what you think about what is happening to this country?
            Regularly/ Sometimes/ Seldom/ Never

F.3a- And how often do you talk about the problems of this city with friends?
            Regularly/ Sometimes/ Seldom/ Never

F.3b- Do people often ask what you think about what's happening in this city?
            Regularly/ Sometimes/ Seldom/ Never

F.4-How would you rate the following for finding out what is going on:
            In the country as a whole? In this city?
            Very good/ Fairly good / Not much use / No good
            a- Television
            b- Newspapers
            c- Talking with friends


G.1-What should a person who needs a government permit do if an official says just be patient?
            Offer a "tip" or a present to the official to get a prompt reply / Use connections/ Write a letter to the head office/ Do what you want without a permit/ Nothing can be done

G.2- Compared to the old regime before perestroyka, would you say that today:
            Much better than before/ Better/ Much the same/ A little worse/ Much worse
            a- Everyone has the right to say what they think
            b- You can join any organization you like
            c- People like me can have an influence on government
            d- Everybody has freedom of choice in religious matters
            e- Everyone can decide individually whether or not to participate in politics
            f- Government treats everybody equally and fairly

G.3a- How much influence do you think the government in Moscow has on what happens around here?
            A lot/ Some/ Not very much/ None

G.3b- And how much influence do you think the government of this locality has on what happens around here?
            A lot/ Some/ Not very much/ None

G.4- And how much influence do you think people like yourself can have:
            A lot/ Some/ Not much/ None
            a- Making this city a better place to live?
            b- Making Russia a better place to live?

G.5a-How widespread do you think bribe-taking and corruption is in the national government in Moscow?
            Hardly anyone is involved/ Not a lot/ Most officials are involved/ Almost every one is corrupt

G.5b- By comparison with Soviet times, would you say that the level of bribe-taking and corruption in Moscow has:
            Increased a lot/Increased a little/ Has remained much the same/ Decreased a little/ Decreased a lot

G.6a- How about public officials in this city/oblast? How widespread do you think bribe-taking and corruption is?
            Hardly anyone is involved/ Not a lot/ Most officials are involved/ Almost every one is corrupt

G.6b-By comparison with Soviet times, would you say that in this city/oblast the level of bribe-taking and corruption has:
            Increased a lot/ Increased a little/ Has remained much the same// Decreased a little/ Decreased a lot

G.7- Here are some proposals to make government more honest.
            Definitely agree/ Somewhat agree/ Somewhat disagree/ Completely disagree
            a- Simplify rules, get rid of restrictive regulations
            b- Pay officials more so that they don't need to take bribes to make a living
            c.-Retire officials from old regime and recruit and train new staff
            d- Nothing much will make any difference

G.8- Do you think that Russia's leaders control the situation in the country or that the situation is beyond control?
            Situation under control/ Situation out of control/ Don't know


H.1- What do you think of elections in which we have a big choice of candidates and parties for the Duma and the Presidency?
            Definitely approve/ Somewhat approve/ Somewhat disapprove/ Definitely disapprove

H.2-What do you think people like yourself should do, when there is a:
            a- National election? B- Local election? (Choose only one for each question)
            Make every effort to cast your vote/ If it is not convenient, no need to vote / No point in voting; it doesn't do any good

H.3- Here is a scale for evaluating the political system. The top, plus 100, is the best, and the bottom, minus 100, is the worst. Where on this scale would you put:
            a- The political system we had before perestroyka
            b- Our current political system
            c- The political system we will have in five years

H.4a- Some people think this country would be better governed if Parliament were suspended. How likely do you think this is to happen in the next few years?
            Very likely/ Maybe / Not very likely/ Not at all likely/ Difficult to answer

H.4b- If Parliament was suspended, would you:
            Strongly approve/ Somewhat approve/ Somewhat disapprove/ Strongly disapprove

H.5- There are different opinions about the nature of the state. To what extent would you agree with the following statements:
            Completely agree / Generally agree / Somewhat disagree /Generally disagree/
            a- It would be better to restore the Communist system
            b- The army should govern the country
            c- We should restore the Tsar
            d- A tough dictatorship is the only way out of the current situation

H.6- For many years we had a different system of government and people have different views about it. Which of these statements comes closest to expressing what you think? (Choose only one)
            It was a good way of running things/ Even though it had faults it was tolerable/ It wasn't much good but ordinary people could do nothing about it/ It was bad, and I was wanting it to go away someday

H.7-Here is a scale ranging from a low of 1 to a high 10. On this scale, point 1 means complete dictatorship and 10 means complete democracy.
            a- Where would you place our country at the present time?
            b- And where would you personally like our country to be placed?

H.8a- Do you think that the national government in Moscow looks after the interests of people like yourself:
            Nearly all the time/ Much of the time/ Not very much/ Not at all

H.8b- Do you think that the government in this locality (oblast) looks after the interests of people like yourself:
            Nearly all the time/ Much of the time/ Not very much/ Not at all

H.9a- What rating would you give the President of Russia, Boris Yeltsin, on a scale from 10 (best) to 1 (worst)?

H.9b- What rating would you give the Prime Minister of Russia, Victor Chernomyrdin, on a scale from 10 (best) to 1 (worst)?

H.10- How closely do you think the national government comes to the idea of the law-governed state (pravovoye gosudarstvo) ?
            Very closely/ To some extent/ Not very closely/ Not at all

H.11a- Some people say that laws in this country are often very hard on ordinary people. Do you agree or disagree?
            Definitely agree/ Somewhat agree/ Somewhat disagree/ Definitely disagree

H.11b- A writer once said: "The harshness of Russian laws is softened by their non-enforcement". Do you think this is true?
            Definitely agree/ Somewhat agree/ Somewhat disagree/ Definitely disagree

H.12- It is sometimes said that there is no need to pay taxes if you don't want to; the government will never find out about it. Do you think this is:
            Definitely so/ Somewhat the case/ Usually not the case/ Definitely not so

H.13- It is said that even if the government found out a person wasn't paying taxes, he or she could always give a "present" to an official who would help him find a way around paying taxes. Do you think this is:
            Definitely so/ Usually the case/ Usually not the case/ Definitely not so

H.14-Some people say that in Soviet times to get anything done by a public agency you had to know people in the Party.
            Definitely so/ Usually the case/ Usually not the case/ Definitely not so

H.15- Some people say that nowadays to get anything done by a public agency you need to pay money on the side.
            Definitely so/ Usually the case/ Usually not the case/ Definitely not so

H.16- Do you think any of these poses a big threat, some threat, a little threat or no threat to peace and security in this society ?
            Big threat/ Some threat/ Little threat/ No threat at all
            a- Germany
            b- USA
            c- Ethnic groups, minorities in our country
            d- Immigrants, refugees from other societies


J.1- Over the past 12 months, would you say your physical health has been:
            Very good/ Good/ Average / Poor/ Very poor

J.2a- Do you take any physical exercise regularly, such as walking, sports, swimming or gymnastics?
            Often/ Sometimes/ Occasionally/ Not at all

IF Often/ Sometimes:
J.2b- Do you do this exercise ? (More than one answer allowed)
            By myself / With family, friends / In a group, club

J.2c- And do you smoke cigarettes?
            Yes, currently/ Smoked in past/ Never smoked

J.3- Over the past 12 months, would you say your emotional health has been:
            Very good/ Good/ Average / Poor/ Very poor

J.4-If you became seriously ill and needed some help in the house, is there anyone outside your family that you could count on to help?
            Definitely/ Probably/ Probably not/ Definitely not

J.5-If you needed to go to a doctor, would you:
            Go to a clinic near where you live/ Clinic connected with your place of work/ Pay for private treatment/ Use connections to get a doctor / Go to folk medicine person / Wouldn't go; couldn't afford it

J.6-How much change, if any, would you say there has been in the way doctors treat patients since the big changes in Soviet society?
            A lot better/ Somewhat better/ Not much change/ Somewhat worse/ A lot worse/ Difficult to answer

J.7a- In the past year have you sometimes felt so bad that you could not go to work or engage in your normal everyday activities?
            Not at all/ Once / Twice/ A number of times

J.7b-Did you visit a doctor?
            Yes/ No

J.7c- How would you describe the treatment given?
            Very good/ Fairly Good/ Not so good/ Bad/

J.7d- How much did you have to pay the doctor?
            Paid Money/ Did not pay anything.

J.7e-Was that because... (More than one answer accepted)
            Not that ill/ Doctors don't really care about patients/ Inconvenient, takes too much time /Not worth the money they want/ Went to a pharmacist for medicine/ Used home remedy / Used folk medicine doctor

J.8a In the past year, have you or any member of your family been in hospital?
            Yes, self/ Yes, other family member/ No one was in hospital

J.8b-Was this hospital:
            Municipal hospital / Linked with place of work/ Arranged through connections/ Private treatment

J.8c- If so, how would you describe the treatment given?
            Very good/ Fairly Good/ Not so good/ Bad/

J.8d- About how much did it cost?
            Paid cash/ Gave present / Didn't pay anything.

IF NO: No one in hospital
J.8e-Was that because: (More than one answer accepted)
            No one that ill / Hospitals don't really look after patients/ Inconvenient, takes too much time / Not worth the money they want/ Went to a pharmacist for medicine/ Used home remedy /Used folk medicine doctor

J.9- What should a person with a painful disease do, if a hospital says it is necessary to wait for months?
            Offer a tip to a doctor for prompt treatment/ Use connections /Go to the hospital and beg it to speed things up /Pay a doctor for prompt private treatment/ Nothing can be done

J.10-How would you say hospital treatment of patients has altered since the big changes in Soviet society with perestroyka?
            A lot better/ Somewhat better/ Not much change/ Somewhat worse/ A lot worse/ Difficult to answer

J.11-Some people feel they have completely free choice and control over their lives, while others feel that what they do has no real effect on what happens to them. How about yourself? Where would you place yourself on this scale of how much free choice and control you have over the way your life turns out? One (1) represents 'None at all' and ten (10) represents 'A great deal.'
            1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


K.1 On whom do you rely when you have a problem first of all? And next?
            a- First
            b- Second
            Local, central government institutions/ Social services of enterprise, trade union / Charities, church/ Friends / Family / Myself/ Other

K.2-Would you say that most people can be trusted or you can't be too careful in dealing with people:
            Usually can trust people/ Sometimes can trust people/ Sometimes need to be careful with people/ Usually need to be careful with people

K.3- To what extent do you trust each of the following institutions to look after your interests? Please indicate on a scale with 1 indicating no trust at all and 7 great trust.
            a- Courts
            b- Political parties
            c- Police
            d- Local government
            e- Army
            f- Duma
            g- Church
            h- trade unions
            i- The President of Russia
            j- Private enterprises
            k- Television
            m- Privatization investment funds

K.4-Do you belong to any of the following type of organizations (more than one answer okay)
            Sport or recreation group/ Musical, literary, or art group/ Political party/ Association to improve your housing block, neighbourhood/ Charitable organization

IF YES (for each group)
K.4a- How active are you:
            Very active/ Fairly active/ Not very active

K.4b- Do members of this group often help each other out in other ways?
            Often/ Sometimes/ Seldom/ Never

K.4c- When the group tries to do something, what difficulties does it have?
            Often/ Sometimes/ Seldom/ Not at all
            a. Shortage of facilities such as meeting room, playing fields,
            b. Hard to find time to get together
            c. Members don't cooperate, they quarrel
            d. Short of money to pay for what we need

K.5- If you went to see about something, would you expect fair treatment from:
            Definitely/ Probably/ Not likely/ Definitely not
            a- Local grocery shop
            b- Enterprise officials who decide promotions, salaries
            c- Local housing manager
            d- Bank
            e- Social security office
            f- Hospital
            g- Clinic doctor
            h- Post office
            i- Municipal office
            j- Police

K.6- To what extent do you think it is all right for a person to:
            All right / Sometimes all right/ Most of the time wrong/ Definitely wrong
            a- Claim benefits not eligible for
            b- Avoid paying a bus fare
            c- Giving money to civil servant to solve your problem
            d- Take something from a shop without paying
            e- Not paying taxes
            f- Buy something knowing it was stolen

K.7- In former times, when the Communist Party was the only party in the country, many people were members. Which of these phrases applies to them?
            Definitely/ Somewhat/ A little/ Not at all
            a- Believed in the party's principles, ideas
            b- Had to join to get a job, promotion
            c- Not to be trusted
            d- Tried to help other people
            e- They used party to get privileges for self, family


L.1- Gender

L.2- Age

L.3- Personal family situation
            Single/ Married/ Live together/ Separated/ Divorced/ Widow

L.4- What is the total number of people in the household sharing their income, including yourself, all children and those temporarily absent.
            0/ 1/ 2/ 3/ 4 or more

L.4a- How many are employed?
            0/ 1/ 2/ 3/ 4 or more

L.4b- Total number in household
            1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5 /6 / 7 or more

L.4c- How many are children age 15 or younger?
            0/ 1/ 2/ 3/ 4 or more

L.4d- Who usually looks after children when parents are at work?
            Mother stays home, does not work/ Grandmother, other relative/ Friends, neighbours/ Employer has creche, facilities for children/ Old enough to look after themselves.

L.4e-You sometimes hear it said that pupils who want a good examination mark are expected to give "presents" to their teachers. At the school of your children, did this happen:
            Often/ Sometimes/ Not often/ Not at all

L.5a- What education have you had?
            Elementary or lower/ Secondary incomplete/ Secondary without certificate/ Vocational, secondary incomplete/ Secondary academic/ Vocational + secondary/ Technical college/ Higher incomplete/ University diploma

L.5b- Compared to your parents, have you had:
            More education/ About the same/ Not as much

L.6- What should a parent do if their child's exam marks aren't good enough to be admitted to a university?
            Offer a tip or payment to admissions official / Use connections/ Make up an excuse for poor grades/ Pay a tutor, take exams again to do better/ Nothing can be done, accept it

L.7a-What is your nationality?
            Russian/ Ukrainian/ Belorussian/ Tatar/ Jew/ Indigenous republic/ Other

L.7b-How proud are you of your nation?
            Very proud/ Somewhat proud/ Not very proud/ Not at all proud/ Don't know

L.8-Do you sometimes think of yourself as a European?
            Often/ Sometimes/ Rarely/ Never

L.9-In the past, many people were members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Were you or anyone from your family a CPSU member?
            Member / Another in family was member / No one a member

L.10-There are people in a high position in this society and others who have a low status. What position do you have now? 1=Highest 10 = Lowest

L.11-How often do you go to church, religious services?
            Once a week at least / At least once or twice a month/ A few times a year/ Very seldom/ Never

L.12-Does your household have any of the following?
            Yes/ No
            a- Colour TV
            b- Car
            c- Video cassette recorder
            d- Personal computer

L.13a- Does your family have any savings?
            Yes, in roubles/ Yes in hard currency / No


L13b- In the past year have your savings:
            Increased/ Stayed the same / Decreased

VCIOM Interviewer to code
L.14-Town size
            Moscow / Oblast centre / More than 500,000 / Oblast centre less than 500,000 / Other city more than 100,000 /Other town less than 100,000/ Rural

L.15-Geographical region

L.16-Primary sampling unit

CSPP School of Government & Public Policy U. of Strathclyde Glasgow G1 1XQ Scotland