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New Russia Barometer 8

A EMP Employment
B EC: Economy
C PO: Political Opinions
D VP: Voting, Parties
E VL: View of Life
F IR: International relations
G S: Social Structure


We would like you to answer some questions about what you do. If you work at several jobs, tell us about the job which you consider to be your main one.
A1. What is your current economic status?
Self-employed, own business, own farm
Employed, on maternity leave
Pensioner but still employed.
Pensioner Go to 3
Unemployed, getting state unemployment benefit
Unemployed, not getting state
unemployment benefit

A2. In the past 12 months at any time have you been:
Received wages late
Not been paid at all

A3. IF pensioner:
Pension paid late
Pension not paid at all

A4. Could you borrow as much as a week's wage or pension from a friend or a relative?
Definitely/Probably/Probably not/Definitely not

A5. Which of these terms best describes your employer
State-owned enterprise
State budgetary organization
Mixed ownership (state and private) enterprise
Privatized (former state) enterprise
Newly created enterprise/private company
Foreign enterprise/joint venture
Self-employed, own business
State or collective farm or forestry enterprise
Other (Specify)

A6. If you had a choice, would you prefer working for:
State enterprise, budgetary institution
Privatized company, formerly a state enterprise
New private company
Joint venture/Foreign firm

A7. Do you belong to a trade union?
Yes/No/No union at place of work/Don't know

A8. Are you worried about losing your job?
Yes, very worried/Somewhat worried/No

A9. Have you ever thought seriously about working in a country of Western Europe?
Yes, thought about it/No/Have already worked there

A10. What salary or income did you earn from your main job in the past month (after paying taxes), including money you have earned but not yet received, bonuses you expect to receive etc.? (Incomes received in foreign currency should be converted into roubles at the current rate). Approximately ___________roubles.
Standard deviation

A11. Do you earn enough from your main job to buy all you really need?
Definitely enough/Just enough/Not enough/Definitely not enough

A12. In the last month, apart from your main work or occupation, did you have any other work or occupation bringing you supplementary income?
Yes, regular supplementary work
Yes, occasional earnings
No, no supplementary work

A13. In the past year has your household:
Made savings/Just got by/Spent savings/Borrowed money/Spent savings and borrowed money


Here is a scale ranking how well an economy works. The top, plus 100, is the best and the bottom, minus 100, is the worst. Where on this scale would you put:

B1. The economic system before perestroyka?

B2. Our current economic system

B3. Our economic system in five years

Which of these statements are you more inclined to agree with, and how much?
B4. State ownership is the best way to run an enterprise
Definitely agree/Somewhat agree
OR An enterprise is best run by private entrepreneurs
Definitely agree/Somewhat agree

B5. It is better when there are plenty of goods in the shops even if they are expensive
Definitely agree/Somewhat agree
OR It is better when the prices are kept low by the state even if there are few goods in the shops
Definitely agree/Somewhat agree

B6. Goods made in other countries should be freely imported and sold here if people want to buy them
Definitely agree/Somewhat agree
OR There should be strict limits on selling foreign goods here to protect the jobs of people in this country
Definitely agree/Somewhat agree

B7. How would you assess the economic situation in your city/district at the present time?
Very good/Fairly good/Not so good/Very bad

B8. Who is to be blamed for our economic problems and to what extent?
Mainly/Some extent/Not much/Not at all
a. Yeltsin
b. Former Communist regime
c. Today's Communist party
d. Prime Minister Putin
e. Government officials generally
f. Western governments
g. Businessmen
h. Transformation from Socialist to market economy
j. Mafia

B9. How long do you think it will take the government to solve the economic problems in the country?
1-2 years/3-5 years/6-10 years/Never/Already resolved/Don't know

B10. Making decisions about the Russian economy is difficult. How much confidence do you have in the ability of the following to make decisions that are good for the country?
A lot/Some/A little/None
a. The State Bank
b. Leading professors of economics
c. Businessmen/ entrepreneurs
d. The Ministry of Finance

And now please answer some questions about the material situation of your family
B11. In the past twelve months did your family often, sometimes, rarely,. or never have to do without:
a. Food
b. Heating
c. Electricity
d. Clothes, shoes that are really necessary

B12. And now, including all sources of family income, what was your total family income in the past month, including money you have earned but not yet received, bonuses you expect to receive, etc. (Note: Convert any foreign currency earnings into roubles)
Mean/Standard deviation

B13. Does your family have any savings?
Yes, in roubles/a rouble account
Yes in hard currency/a hard currency account

B14. Do you have any of the following in your household: (% saying yes)
a. Colour television
b. Video cassette recorder
c. Second hand car
d. New car

B15. Do you have a telephone?

B16. Do you (or your family) have shares or investment funds that you got:
Yes/No/Don't know
a. In exchange for vouchers
b. From privatization of your enterprise
c. By buying them for money

B17. Do you have access to the Internet/WorldWideWeb?
Yes, at work/Yes at home/Yes, through friends, other means/No/Never heard of it

B18. All in all, how do you rate the economic situation of your family today?
Very satisfactory/Fairly satisfactory/Not very satisfactory/Very unsatisfactory

B19. How would you compare your family's economic situation with what it was before perestroyka?
Much better now/Somewhat better/Same/Somewhat worse now/ Much worse

B20. What do you think the economic situation of your family will be in five years compared to now?
Much better in future/Somewhat better/Same/Somewhat worse/
Much worse

B21. Which activity on this card is the most important for the standard of living of you and your family? (SHOW CARD)
Growing own food
Repairing (enlarging) house
What we get as favours
What we get with the help of friends and relatives
What we get in foreign currency
Earnings in second job, income from own business
Money that we get on the side, private services, commissions, tips
Earnings from regular job
Pension or unemployment money
Benefits given at work, like meals, holidays, housing

B22. And which is second in importance?
Growing own food
Repairing (enlarging) house
What we get as favours
What we get with the help of friends and relatives
What we get in foreign currency
Earnings in second job, income from own business
Money that we get on the side, private services, commissions, tips
Earnings from regular job
Pension or unemployment money
Benefits given at work, like meals, holidays, housing

B23. How long will it be before you have reached a standard of living with which you are content?
1-2 years/3-5 years/6-10 years/Never/Already reached/Don't know


Here is a scale for evaluating the political system. The top, plus 100, is the best, and the bottom, minus 100, is the worst. Where on this scale would you put:

C1. The political system we had before perestroyka

C2. Our current Political system

C3. The political system we will have in five years

C4. Compared to the old regime before perestroyka, would you say today things are:
Much better than before/Better/Much the same/A little worse/Much worse
a. Everyone has the right to say what they think
b. You can join any organization you like
c. People like me can have an influence on government
d. Everybody has freedom of choice in religious matters
e. Everyone can decide individually whether or not to participate in politics
f. Government treats everybody equally and fairly

C5. The word democracy has many different meanings; this card gives some of them. For each item, please indicate whether you think for democracy it is:
Essential/Important but not essential/Not very important /Unimportant/Don't know
a. Equality of all citizens before the law
b. A choice of candidates and parties at each election
c. Freedom of action (You don't have to do what politicians say if you don't want to)
d. Government guarantees a certain level of income for all its citizens
e. There is freedom to criticize government
f. The country is economically prosperous

And here is a scale ranging from a low of 1 to a high 10. On this scale, 1 means complete dictatorship and 10 means complete democracy.

C6. Where would you place our country at the present time?

C7. And where would you personally like our country to be placed?

C8. Some people think this country would be better governed if Parliament were suspended. How likely do you think this is to happen in the next few years?
Very likely/Maybe/Not very likely/Not at all likely

C9. IF Parliament was suspended, would you:
Strongly approve/Somewhat approve/Somewhat disapprove/Strongly disapprove

C10. There are different opinions about the nature of the state. To what extent do you:
Completely agree/Generally agree/Somewhat disagree/Generally disagree
a. It would be better to restore the Communist system
b. The army should govern the country
c. We should restore the Tsar
d. A tough dictatorship is the only way out of the current situation

C11. How much influence do you think the government in Moscow has on what happens in the regions and localities?
A lot/Some/Not very much/None

C12. To what extent do you trust each of the following institutions to look after your interests? Please indicate on a scale with 1 for no trust at all and 7 great trust.
Trusts/Neutral/Does not trust
a. Courts
b. Political parties
c. Police
d. Army
e. Duma
f. Trade unions
g. The President of Russia
h. Private enterprises
j. Foreign organizations, experts advising our government
k. Most people you meet

C13. Government has to deal with many problems--but it cannot solve all of them at once. How much priority do you think the next Russian government ought to give to each of the following problems facing this country?
Highest Priority/Important/Low priority/Unimportant
a. Rising prices
b. Threat of terrorist attacks in Russian cities
c. Crisis in the health service
d. Unemployment
e. Pollution of environment
f. War in Chechnya
g. Corruption in government
h. Unfair treatment of Russians in other CIS countries
j. Crime
k. Russia's status as a great power

Which of these statements are you more inclined to agree with and how much?
C14. Our country should develop like West European countries
Definitely agree/Somewhat agree
OR Our country should develop according to our own traditions
Definitely agree/Somewhat agree

C14a. It will take years for the next Russian government to deal with problems inherited from the past
Definitely agree/Somewhat agree/Somewhat disagree/Strongly disagree

C14b. If the current government cannot deal with the problems facing the country, then we should get rid of elections to the Duma and try another form of government
Definitely agree/Somewhat agree/Somewhat disagree/Strongly disagree

C15. Do you think:
Strongly agree/Somewhat agree/Somewhat disagree/Strongly disagree
a. The President of Russia should have the right to suspend the Parliament and introduce presidential rule by decree if he considers that necessary
b. The Duma should have the right to stop the President taking decisions that it considers wrong

C16. If a person has to get a decision from the authorities and officials are taking too long, what should he do?
Not to worry; the decision will eventually be made
Offer a bribe or a present to the official to get a decision
Use connections
Write a letter to the head office
Do what you want without the decision
Nothing can be done

C17. There is a lot of talk these days about the duties that people owe this country. How important is it that everyone living here:
Very/Somewhat/Not very/Not at all
a. Pays taxes on all their income
b. Respects the country's flag
c. Respects points of view different from their own
d. Does military service when young
e. Obeys all the country's laws

What assessment would you give of Boris Yeltsin as president of Russia if '1' is lowest and '10' is highest?

C18. President Yeltsin

C19. Prime minister Vladimir Putin?

C20. Gennadi Zyuganov, leader of the Communist Party?

C21. Aleksandr Lukashenka, leader of Belarus?

C22. Who is to be blamed for the conflict in Chechnya?
A lot/Some/Not much/Not at all
a. The army
b. President Yeltsin
c. USA
d. Extremists from Middle Eastern countries
e. The Chechens

C23. What is your attitude to the actions of the Russian government in Chechnya?
Fully support/Support to some degree/Many criticisms/Definitely oppose

C24. If they only sent volunteers to conflict areas, would you be willing to you yourself or see your husband, son, brother or other close relative, go to Chechnya to fight the bandits and terrorists?
Yes/No/Couldn't go because of health, other reasons

C25. How do you think the conflict in Chechnya will end?
Fighters will be overcome and Chechnya will return to Russia
The part of Chechnya north of the Terek will return to Russia
Enormous losses on both sides and end as in 1996
Protracted fighting will spread to other parts of the North Caucasus

C26. What do you think of the possible separation of Chechnya from Russia?
It has already happened in fact
I would be delighted by such a turn of events
It wouldn't make any difference to me
I'm against such a turn of events but could accept it
We must prevent that by any possible means, including military


D1. Do you identify with any political party?
Yes/No--go to 3

D2. If YES: Do you identify...
Strongly/Somewhat/Only a little

D3. What broad political outlook are you most inclined to favour?:
'Right-wing' (Supporters of a market economy and market relationships)
Social democratic
Great power patriot
Environmentalist, Green

D4. What do you think of elections in which we have a big choice of candidates and parties for the Duma and the Presidency?
Definitely favour/Somewhat favour/Not so good/Definitely bad

D5. How often do you usually read, watch or hear:
a. National newspapers
b. Regional, local newspapers
c. National television
d. Regional, local television

D6. During the election campaign for the State Duma at the end of last year, how much attention did you pay to news about it in the media?
A lot/Some/A little/None

D7. How useful were the following in helping you decide what to do in the Duma election?
Very/Somewhat/A little/Not at all
a. State television (ORT, RTR, Regional government TV stations)
b. Private television (NTV, TV6, Other private TV channels)
c. National newspapers
d. Talking with friends, workmates
e. My own experience, observations

D8. Did you take part in the elections on 19 Dec 1999?
Yes [Go to question. 10]
No [Go to question 9]
Couldn't because under 18 [Go to question 12]

D9. Please say why you didn't vote in the election of the Duma on 19 Dec 1999 (several answers possible) [Then go to Q. 11]
Couldn't get to polling station (sick, absent)
Didn't know who to vote for
Tired of politics, struggles at the top
No party reflects my interests
Don't trust any of today's politicians
My participation makes no difference
Elections are dishonest, results will be falsified
Duma solves nothing, election is useless
Don't know much about/not interested in politics
Elections make no difference to what government does

D10. For which party or electoral bloc did you vote in the last Duma election?
Conservative Movement of Russia (KDR)
Russian National Union (ROS)
Women of Russia (ZhR)
Stalinist Bloc for USSR
Communists, Workers of Russia, for the Soviet Union
Peace. Work. May
Bloc A. Nikolaev S. Fyodorov
Spiritual Heritage
Congress of Russian Communities
Party of Peace and Unity
Russian Party for Defence of Women
Unity Bloc - Medved
Social Democrats
Movement in Support of the Army (DPA)
Zhirinovsky Bloc
For Citizen's Worth
Fatherland- All Russia (OVR)
Communist Party of the Russian Federation
Russian Cause
Union of Right Forces
Our Home is Russia (NDR)
Socialist Party of Russia
Party of Pensioners
Russian Socialist Party
Against all
Spoiled the ballot

D11. Did anyone pressure you to vote in a certain way in the Duma election, for instance by offering 'gifts', giving you instructions, threatening you or other forms of pressure?
Yes, my vote was made under pressure, inducement
Yes, there were pressures, inducements but it made no difference to how I voted

D12. Would you say that the Duma election was fair in:
Definitely/To some extent/Not very/Not at all
a. Administering ballot and counting votes
b. Television reporting of the campaign
c. The campaign in single-member Duma districts

D13. On election day, did you or any member of your family experience any irregularities, such as ballots refused at the polling station or seeing ballots marked by polling officials instead of voters? (can choose more than one)
Yes, I did
Yes, someone in family
Yes, heard from friends, neighbours
Heard accusations on television, newspapers
No, didn't see or hear anything

D14. Some people say that the Duma election can change the future direction of this country; others say that no matter how you vote, things will not change in future. What do you think?
Definitely change/Somewhat/Not much change/No difference

D15. Some people say that it would not be a good idea to hold the presidential election scheduled in June, even though it is what the law calls for, because it would only stir up trouble. Others think it ought to be held. What do you think?
Definitely right/Somewhat desirable/Not so good/Definitely wrong

D16. Did you vote in the second round of the 1996 election? If yes, who did you vote for?
Against all
Didn't vote

D17. Suppose the presidential election were held next Sunday. What would you say about your intention to vote?
Sure I won't vote [Go to next section]
Doubt I will vote
Don't know whether I will vote
Probably will vote
Definitely will vote

D18. If the ballot included the following candidates, for which one would you vote? (One answer)
Against all
Wouldn't vote
Don't know

D19. And in the 2nd round ballot for the presidency, what would you do if the choice was between Putin and Zyuganov?
Don't know
Would definitely not vote


E1. People differ in what is meant by talking about "a normal society". How important do you think each of the following is in creating a normal society?
Very/Somewhat/A little/Not at all
a. Everybody who wants to work can find a job
b. If things go wrong, public welfare services will help
c. Ordinary people can go about their everyday activities without interference by government
d. If you save money, it does not lose its value because of inflation
e. There are opportunities for you or your children to improve your living conditions
f. Government officials treat ordinary people fairly
g. It is safe to go about the streets without being afraid of crime
h. The country is governed by strong authority
j. Everyone can expect to retire from work and enjoy a normal standard of living to a ripe old age

E2. Do you think Russian life today is that of a normal society?
Definitely/Somewhat/Only a little/Not at all

E3. (If did not think it definitely, somewhat a normal society) How long do you think it will be before Russia becomes a normal society?
1-2 years/3-5 years/6-10 years/Never

E4. Some people feel they have completely free choice and control over their lives, while others feel that what they do has no real effect on what happens to them. How about yourself? Here is a scale, where 1 equals no free choice and self control and 10 equals complete free choice and self control. Where would you place yourself in terms of the amount of free choice and self-control you have over the way your life turns out?


F 1. What do you think about this country having closer ties with each of the former republics of the Soviet Union? (Answer for each)
a. Azerbaijan
b. Armenia
c. Belarus
d. Georgia
e. Kazakhstan
f. Kirghizia
g. Latvia
h. Lithuania
j. Moldova
k. Tajikistan
l. Turkmenistan
m. Uzbekistan
n. Ukraine
o. Estonia

F2. Do you have any close relatives living in other CIS countries?

F3. If Russians in the near abroad were under threat from the government there, the Russian government could respond in different ways. Which of the following actions would you support?
Totally approve/Somewhat approve/Somewhat disapprove/Totally disapprove
a. Negotiate
b. Use economic pressure
c. Resettle people of Russian nationality in the Russian Federation
d. Military action
e. A policy of non-interference in the affairs of the other country

F4. Some people say that the living standards of this country would be better if all the territories of the CIS were joined together in a single unified state. But others say that this would cause political trouble or be bad for our economic conditions. What do you think?
Much better off if a single state
Somewhat better off
Wouldn't make any difference
Somewhat worse off if a single state
Much worse off if a single state

F5. How much help do you think Russia should give other CIS states?
Should not help CIS countries
Should help less than today
Should help as much as at present
Should help more than today

F6. Have you ever visited any of the following countries?
Czech Republic

F7. How much would this country benefit if it had stronger economic ties with:
A lot/Some/Not much/Not at all/Don't know
Czech Republic

F8. Do you ever think of yourself as a European?

F9. As you may know, 15 states of Western Europe together form the European Union. Do you happen to know which of these cities is its headquarters? (Choose one)
Don't know

F10. Are your general impressions of the aims and activities of the European Union:
Very positive
Fairly positive
Fairly negative
Very negative
Don't know anything about the aims and activities of the European Union

F11. Do you think this country would be economically better off if it joined the European Union along with major countries of Western Europe?
Definitely yes/Probably yes/No difference/Probably no/Definitely not

F12. Do you think any of the following countries could be a substantial threat to security of Russia?
Big threat/Some threat/Little threat/No threat at all
a. China
b. Germany
c. Iraq
d. USA
e. European Union
f. People of other nationalities living in Russia
g. Ukraine/Russian Federation
(In Russia name Ukraine; in Ukraine name Russia; in Belarus Russia)

F13. Last year there was a conflict in Serbia between Serbs and ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. Do you sympathize with:
No sympathy for either
Not at all interested

F14. With which countries do you think it is most important for Russia to have good relations?
Very important/Somewhat/Not very/Not at all/Don't know
a. China
b. Great Britain
c. USA
d. Germany
e. Japan
f. European Union

F15. In the next five years do you think some other country might attack Russia?
Very likely/A real possibility/Not likely/Not at all likely

F16. NATO is a major international alliance that Russia does not belong to. Do you happen to know whether it is: (ONLY ONE CHOICE)
A big economic trading bloc linking Western Europe, Canada and USA
The peacekeeping forces of the United Nations
An American led military alliance with Western Europe and Canada
Don't know

F17. Since the break up of the Soviet Union, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland have joined NATO. Do you think this alliance presents any threat to the security of this country?
Major threat/Some threat/Not much threat/Not at all/Don't know

F18. What would your attitude be if the Baltic countries also joined NATO. Would such an alliance present any threat to the security of this country?
Major threat/Some threat/Not much threat/Not at all/Don't know

F19. Do you think this country would be more secure if it could join NATO?
Definitely yes/Probably yes/No difference/Probably no/Definitely not

F20. Do you think this country should increase what it spends on military defense, decrease it, or leave things as they are at present?
Spend a lot more/Spend a little more/Leave as it is/Spend a little less/Spend a lot less

F21. What is your attitude to the following proposal: It is necessary to get rid of all nuclear weapons unilaterally and make Russia a nuclear-free zone?
Completely agree/Somewhat agree/Somewhat disagree/Definitely disagree


G1. Are you:

G2. How old are you?________ full years

G3. What is your level of education?
Elementary education or less
Incomplete secondary education
Complete secondary education without certificate
Completed vocational education with incomplete secondary
Completed secondary with certificate
Completed vocational education and secondary certificate
Completed specialised vocational education
Completed 3-4 years of higher education without a degree
Completed higher education with a degree
Completed higher education with more than one degree

G4. What is your family status?
Live together, but not married
Live separately, but not divorced

G5. How many people in your family are living together with you in this household? including yourself, all children and any temporarily absent?
0/1/2/3/4 or more

G6. How many in your household are employed?
0/1/2/3/4 or more

G7. If you became seriously ill and needed some help in the house, is there anyone outside your family that you could count on to help?
Definitely/Probably/Probably not/Definitely not

G8. In our society there are people of high social position and people of low social position. What position in your opinion do you have now on a scale if 1 to 10 where 1 is the highest and 10 is the lowest?

G9. What is your nationality?
Of local republic (e.g. Tatar)

G10a. To what extent are you proud of your nationality?
Definitely/Somewhat/A little/Not at all

b. To what extent are you proud to be a citizen of Russia?
Definitely/Somewhat/A little/Not at all

G11. Do people often ask what you think about what is happening to this country?

G12. Were you or anyone from your family a CPSU member?
Member/Another in family was member/No one a member

G13. How often do you go to church or religious services?
Once a week/more often
Once or twice a month
At least a few times a year
Less than once or twice a year
Never go to church

CSPP School of Government & Public Policy U. of Strathclyde Glasgow G1 1XQ Scotland