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New Russia Barometer 9 Questionnaire


We would like you to answer some questions about the work you do. If you work at several jobs, tell us about the job which you consider to be your main one.
1. What is your current economic status?
a. Employed
b. Self-employed, own business, own farm
c. Employed, on maternity leave
d. Pensioner but still employed.
e. Pensioner Go to q. 3
f. Unemployed, getting state unemployment benefit
g. Unemployed, not getting state unemployment benefit
h. Housewife
k. Student
l. Other

2. In the past 12 months at any time have you been:
a. Unemployed Yes/ No
b. Received wages late Yes/ No
c. Not been paid at all Yes/ No

3. IF pensioner:
a. Pension paid late Yes/ No
b. Pension not paid at all Yes/ No

Ask Qs. 4-7 only of those employed (reply a,b,c, or d to Q. 1
4. Which of these terms best describes your employer
State-owned enterprise
State budgetary organization,
Mixed ownership (state and private) enterprise
Privatized former state enterprise
Newly created enterprise/private company
Foreign enterprise/ joint venture
Self-employed, own business
State or collective farm or forestry enterprise
Other (Specify)

5. Are you worried about losing your job?
Yes, very worried / Somewhat worried / No

6. After paying taxes, what salary or income did you earn from your main job in the past month including money you have earned but not yet received, bonuses you expect to receive etc.? (Incomes received in foreign currency should be converted into roubles at the current rate).
Approximately ___________roubles.

7. Do you earn enough from your main job to buy all you really need?
Definitely enough / Just enough / Not enough / Definitely not enough


1. Here is a scale ranking how well an economy works. The top, plus 100, is the best and the bottom, minus 100, is the worst. Where on this scale would you put:
a. The economic system before perestroyka?
b. Our current economic system
c. Our economic system in five years

2. Who is to be blamed for our economic problems and to what extent?
Mainly / Some extent / Not much / Not at all
a. Former Communist regime
b. Vladimir Putin
c. Government officials generally
d. Boris Yeltsin
e. Businessmen
f. Transformation from Socialist to market economy
g. Mafia

3. How have the big changes that have occurred since Soviet times affected you?
I have adapted to the changes
Still trying to adapt
I live as before, don't notice changes
I am unable to adjust

4. How long do you think it will take the government to solve the economic problems in the country?
1-2 years / 3-5 years / 6-10 years / Never / Already resolved / Don't know

Now here are some questions about the material situation of your family
5. In the past twelve months did your family often, sometimes, rarely, or never have to do without:
Often / Sometimes / Rarely / Never
a) Food
b) Heating
c) Electricity
d) Clothes, shoes that are really necessary

6. Including all sources of family income, what was your total family income in the past month, including money you have earned but not yet received, bonuses you expect to receive, etc. (Note: Convert any foreign currency earnings into roubles) ----------- Roubles

7. Do you have any of the following in your household:
Colour television Yes/ No
Video cassette recorder
None of above

8. All in all, how do you rate the economic situation of your family today?
Very satisfactory / Fairly satisfactory / Not very satisfactory / Very unsatisfactory

9. How would you compare your family's economic situation with what it was before perestroyka?
Much better now / Somewhat better / Same / Somewhat worse now / Much worse

10. What do you think the economic situation of your family will be in five years compared to now?
Much better in future / Somewhat better / Same / Somewhat worse / Much worse

11. a. Which activity on this card is the most important for the standard of living of you and your family?
b. And which is second in importance?
1st-a 2nd-b
(SHOW CARD) (Only one answer for a, for b)
-Growing own food
-Repairing (enlarging) house
-What we get as favours
-What we get with the help of friends and relatives
-What we get in foreign currency
-Earnings in second job, income from own business
-Money that we get on the side, private services, commissions, tips
-Earnings from regular job
-Pension or unemployment money
-Benefits given at work, like meals, holidays, housing

12. In the past year has your household:
Made savings / Just got by / Spent savings /Borrowed money / Spent savings and borrowed money

13. How long will it be before you have reached a standard of living with which you are content?
1-2 years / 3-5 years / 6-10 years / Never / Already content / Don't know

Which of these statements are you more inclined to agree with, and how much?
14. State ownership is the best way to run an enterprise.
Definitely agree / Somewhat agree
An enterprise is best run by private entrepreneurs
Definitely agree / Somewhat agree

15. It is better when there are plenty of goods in the shops even if they are expensive
Definitely agree / Somewhat agree
It is better when the prices are kept low by the state even if there are few goods in the shops
Definitely agree / Somewhat agree


1. Here is a scale for evaluating the political system. The top, plus 100, is the best, and the bottom, minus 100, is the worst. Where on this scale would you put:
a. the political system we had before perestroyka
b. our current political system
c. the political system we will have in five years

2. Compared to the old regime before perestroyka, would you say today things are:
Much better than before/ better/ Much the same/ A little worse/ Much worse
a. Everyone has the right to say what they think
b. You can join any organization you like
c. People like me can have an influence on government
d. Everybody has freedom of choice in religious matters
e. Everyone can decide individually whether or not to participate in politics.
f. Government treats everybody equally and fairly

3. The word democracy has many different meanings; this card gives some of them. For each item, please indicate whether you think for democracy it is:
Essential/Important but not essential/ Not very important/ Unimportant/don't know
a. Freedom of action: You don't have to do what politicians say if you don't want to.
b. Government guarantees a certain level of income for all its citizens
c. A choice of candidates and parties at each election
d. The country is economically prosperous
e. There is freedom to criticize government
f. Equality of all citizens before the law

4. Do you think having regular elections makes politicians do what ordinary people want?
To a large extent/ Somewhat/ Not much/ Not at all

5a. Some people think this country would be better governed if Parliament were suspended. How likely do you think this is to happen in the next few years?
Very likely / Maybe / Not very likely/ Not at all likely/

b.IF Parliament was suspended, would you:
Strongly approve / Somewhat approve / Somewhat disapprove / Strongly disapprove

6. There are different opinions about the nature of the state. To what extent do you
Completely agree / Generally agree / Somewhat disagree /Generally disagree
a. It would be better to restore the Communist system
b. The army should govern the country.
c. We should restore the Tsar
d. A tough dictatorship is the only way out of the current situation.

7a. What broad political outlook do you most associate with Vladimir Putin?
Support a market economy
Great power patriot
Environmentalist, Green

b. And what broad political outlook are you most inclined to favour?:
Support a market economy
Great power patriot
Environmentalist, Green

8. To what extent do you trust each of the following institutions to look after your interests? Please indicate on a scale with 1 for no trust at all and 7 great trust.
a. Courts
b. Political parties
c. Police
d. Army
e. Duma
f. Trade unions
g. The President of Russia
h. Private enterprises
j. Foreign organizations, experts advising our government
k. Most people you meet

9. Government has to deal with many problems--but it cannot solve all of them at once. Which two problems do you think should have the highest priority?
a. Rising prices
b. Threat of terrorist attacks in Russian cities
c. Health, education services
d. War in Chechnya
e. Corruption in government
f. Unemployment
g. Environmental pollution
h. Crime in the streets

10 Do you think:
Strongly agree / Somewhat agree / Somewhat disagree / Strongly disagree
a. The President of Russia should have the right to suspend the Parliament and introduce presidential rule by decree if he considers that necessary
b. The Duma should have the right to stop the President taking decisions that it considers wrong

11 What assessment would you each of the following, if '1' is lowest and '10' is highest mark?
a. Vladimir Putin
b. Gennadi Zyuganov
c. Boris Yeltsin

12. And here is a scale ranging from a low of 1 to a high 10. On this scale, 1 means complete dictatorship and 10 means complete democracy.
a. Where would you place our country at the present time?
b. And where you personally like our country to be placed?


1. Do you identify with any political party?
NO: Go to 2

YES: a. Which party would that be? (Do NOT show card, prompt)
LDPR/Zhirinovsky Bloc
Fatherland-All Russia
Union of Right Forces
Our Home is Russia
Women of Russia
Russian National Unity

b. Does it reflect your views completely or only in part?
A lot / Somewhat / Not much

2. What do you think of elections in which we have a big choice of candidates and parties for the Duma and of candidates for the Presidency?
Definitely favour/ Somewhat favour/ Not so good/ Definitely bad

3. In 1996, did you vote in the second round of the presidential election? If yes, who did you vote for? (DO not prompt with names)
1. Boris Yeltsin
2. Didn't vote
3. Against all
4. Gennadi Zyuganov

4. Did you take part in the elections to Duma last December?
1 Yes (Go to question 4a)
2 No (Go to question 5)

4a. In the proportional representation list ballot, for which party or electoral bloc did you vote?
LDPR/Zhirinovsky Bloc
Fatherland-All Russia
Union of Right Forces
Our Home is Russia
Women of Russia
Against all

4b. In the single member list, did you vote for: (one choice only)
Candidate of same party as on list
Candidate of different party than on list
(Do not read out:) Not sure

5. Did you take part in the presidential election last month?
Yes (Go to question 7)
No (Go to question 6)

6. (IF did not vote in presidential election) Can you please say why you didn't vote (several answers acceptable)
1 Couldn't get to polling station (sick, away from home)
2 Tired of politics, struggles at the top
3 No party reflects my interests
4 Don't trust any of today's politicians
5 My vote makes no difference
6 Elections solve nothing; they are useless
7 Don't know much about/not interested in politics
(Then, for non-voters, GO TO Q. 12)

7. For which candidate did you vote? Russian alphabetical order
Against all/spoiled ballot

8. When did you make up your mind about how you would vote in the presidential election?
On election day
During the week before
During the previous eight weeks
After the Duma election/ when Yeltsin resigned
Last autumn
Last summer, or earlier

9. How useful were the following in helping you decide what to do in the Presidential election?
Very / Somewhat / A little / Not at all
a. State television (ORT, RTR, Regional government TV stations)
b. Private television (NTV, TV6, Other private TV channels)
c. Newspapers
d. Talking with friends, workmates
e. My own experience, observations

10. On election day, did you or any member of your family experience any irregularities, such as ballots refused at the polling station or seeing ballots marked by polling officials instead of voters? (Can choose more than one)
Yes, I or someone in my family did
Yes, heard from friends, neighbours
Heard accusations on television, newspapers
No, didn't see or hear anything

11. Some people vote for a candidate because they favour his policies; others do so because they fear the alternative will be worse. In casting your vote, which most influenced you most (choose only one):
Agree with his policies
Trust candidate as a personality
Best to support a man of power
Didn't like the candidates; my choice was the "lesser evil"

12. Some people say that the presidential election can change the future direction of this country; others say that no matter how you vote, things will not change in future. What do you think.
Definitely change / Somewhat / Not much change / No difference


1. Do you think that there is a substantial threat to security of Russia?
Big threat / Some threat / Little threat / No threat at all
a. People of other nationalities living in Russia.
b. Neighbouring countries of the CIS
c. Germany
d. USA

2. If Russians in the near abroad were under threat from the government there, the Russian government could respond in different ways. Which of the following actions would you support?
Totally approve / Somewhat approve / Somewhat disapprove / Totally disapprove
a Negotiate
b Use economic pressure
c Resettle people of Russian nationality in the Russian Federation
d Military action
e A policy of non-interference in the affairs of the other country

3. How much would you say each of the following is to be blamed for the conflict in Chechnya?
A lot / some / not much / not at all
Extremists from Middle Eastern countries
FSB/KGB plot

4. What is your attitude to the actions of the Russian government in Chechnya.
Fully support / Support to some degree / Many criticisms / Definitely oppose

5. If only volunteers were sent to conflict areas, would you be willing to you yourself or see your husband, son, brother or other close relative, go to Chechnya to fight the bandits and terrorists?
Yes / No / Couldn't go because of health, other reasons

6. What do you think will be the eventual outcome of the conflict in Chechnya?
All of Chechnya will be part of Russia
Chechnya north of the Terek be part of Russia
Fighting will continue with enormous losses on both sides
Protracted fighting will spread to other parts of the North Caucasus

7. What do you think of the possible separation of Chechnya from Russia?
It has already happened in fact
I would be pleased by such a turn of events
It wouldn't make any difference to me
I'm against this but could accept it
We must prevent it by all means, including military

8. Do you ever think of yourself as a European?
Often / Sometimes / Rarely / Never

9. As you may know, 15 states of Western Europe together form the European Union. Do you happen to know which of these cities is its headquarters? (Choose one)
Berlin / Paris / London / Brussels / Rome / Don't know


1. Some people feel they have completely free choice and control over their lives, while others feel that what they do has no real effect on what happens to them. How about yourself? Where would you place yourself on this scale of choice and control over the way your life turns out?
1: None at all 10: A great deal of choice, control

2. Over the past 12 months, would you say your physical health has been:
Excellent / Good / Average / Fair / Poor

3. To what do you attribute current health status? (Can choose more than one)
Working conditions
Diet, careful to eat food that is good for me
Medical treatment
Family upbringing

4. Over the past 12 months, would you say your emotional health has been:
Very good / Good / Average / Poor / Very poor

5. Do you smoke?
Yes, currently / Formerly smoked, but no longer / No

6. Do you sometimes take a drink of something alcoholic (including beer)? If so, how often?
Daily, almost daily
4-5 times a week
2-3 times a week
Once a week
Once a month -----------All of these: Go to q7
Once in 2-3 months ------ Go to Q 13
Less often "

7a. How often do you drink beer?
Daily, almost daily
4-5 times a week
2-3 times a week
Once a week
Once a month -----------All of these: Go to q7b
Once in 2-3 months ------ Go to Q8a
Less often "

7b. How much beer do you usually drink at one time?
Less than 0,5 litre
About 0,5 litre
About 1 litre
1,5 l
2,0 l
More than 2,0

8a . How often do you drink wine?
Daily, almost daily
4-5 times a week
2-3 times a week
Once a week
Once a month -----------All of these: Go to q8b
Once in 2-3 months ------ Go to Q9
Less often

8b. How much wine do you usually drink at one time?
A glass or about 0,2 l
A half bottle, about 0,35 l
A half litre
A bottle (750 cl)
A litre or more

9a. How often do you drink vodka or other spirits?
Daily, almost daily
4-5 times a week
2-3 times a week
Once a week
Once a month -----------All of these: Go to q8b
Once in 2-3 months ------ Go to Q9
Less often

9b. How much vodka do you usually drink at one time?
Less than 10cl
About 10cl
About 20cl
About 30cl
About half litre (1 bottle)
More than half-litre

10 People sometimes drink more than usual at weekends or on special occasions. In the past month, have you drunk as much as a bottle of vodka, four litres of beer or two bottles of wine at one go?
About once a week
2-3 times a month
About once a month
From time to time
Not in last year

11 Do you sometimes have so much to drink that you have difficulty in getting home or going to bed?
About once a week
Several times a month
About once month
Not in past year

12. Do you sometimes wake up in the morning feeling bad because of the amount you had drunk the night before?
About once a week
Several times a month
About once month
Not in past year

13. There are a number of reasons why people drink. How much do any of these apply to you?
Definitely / Some / A little / Not at all
a. Helps to relax
b. I like the taste
c. People with me are drinking
d. It helps me forget problems
e. My family has always done so
f. Marks special occasions

(Ask those who do not drink).
14. There are a number of reasons why people don't drink. How much do any of these apply to you?
Definitely / Some / A little / Not at all
a. It upsets my nerves, digestion
b. I don't like the taste
c. My friends don't drink
d. Bad effects on your health
e. My family doesn't drink
f. It can cause drunkenness


1. Are you: Male / Female

2. How old are you?________ years

3. What is your level of education?
Elementary education or less
Incomplete secondary education
Complete secondary education without certificate
Completed vocational education with incomplete secondary
Completed secondary with certificate
Completed vocational education and secondary certificate
Completed specialised vocational education
Completed 3-4 years of higher education without a degree
Completed higher education with a degree
Completed higher education with more than one degree

4. What is your family status?
Single GO to 5
Married: Go to 4 a
Live together, but not married Go to 5
Live separately, but not divorced: Go to 4a
Divorced: Go to 4a
Widowed: Go to 4a

4a. How old were you when you were first married? --- years

b. How old was your spouse? ---- years

c. Is your spouse still alive? Yes/ No

IF NO d. How old was he/ she at the time of death? ----- years
e. And what was the cause of death:
Heart / Stroke / Cancer / Drink / Accident / War related / Not sure

5. How many people in your family are living together with you in this household? including yourself, all children and any temporarily absent? ----------

6. How many in your household are employed?

7 If you became seriously ill and needed some help in the house, is there anyone outside your family that you could count on to help?
Definitely / Probably / Probably not/ Definitely not

8. In our society there are people of high social position and people of low social position. What position in your opinion do you have now?
1 (high) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 (low)

9. To what extent are you proud to be a citizen of Russia?
Definitely / Somewhat / A little / Not at all

10. What is your nationality?
Local republic (e.g. Tatar)

11. Were you or anyone from your family a CPSU member?
Member / Another in family was member / No one a member

12. How often do you go to church or religious services?
Once a week / more often
Once or twice a month
At least a few times a year
Less than once or twice a year
Never go to church

CSPP School of Government & Public Policy U. of Strathclyde Glasgow G1 1XQ Scotland