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SPP 302

Title: QUALITIES OF INCOMPLETE DEMOCRACIES: Russia, the Czech Republic and Korea Compared
 
Author: Richard Rose and Doh C Shin
 
Description: Elections are not the only quality of democracy; others include the rule of law; civil society institutions; and procedures holding governors accountable. The "third wave" of democratization has started backwards; competitive elections have been introduced in societies where other qualities of democracy are incomplete. In such circumstances, completing democracy differs fundamentally from the evolution of democracies in the standard polyarchy model. An analysis of Russia, the Czech Republic and Korea, drawing on nationwide opinion surveys, shows how citizens evaluate such new regimes. Incomplete democracies can follow a path to complete democratization; return to an undemocratic regime; or continue as they are, falling into a low-level equilibrium trap in which the inadequacies of elites are matched by low popular demands. The consequences of incomplete democracy include an incapacity to deliver social welfare benefits fairly and effectively, "idiotization" (that is, the rejection of civic participation)--but also freedom from a weak state.

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Postal Address:    CSPP Publications, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1XQ, UK

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CSPP School of Government & Public Policy U. of Strathclyde Glasgow G1 1XQ Scotland
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